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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 4 Summary of common herbs used in CVD with possible adverse events

From: Common phyto-remedies used against cardiovascular diseases and their potential to induce adverse events in cardiovascular patients

Scientific/vernacular name Ethnopharmacological use Possible adverse event Likely nature of effect Reference
Capsicum annuum/capsicum Shingles, trigeminal and diabetic neuralgia Blood pressure increased with mono-amine oxidase inhibitors Not known [17]
Capsicum spp./chilli pepper Analgesic May interfere with antihypertensives I [12]
Convallaria majalis/ lilly of the valley CHF β-blockers + calcium channel blockers + digitalis + quinidine + steroids Not known [17]
Cucurbita pepo/pumpkin seed Benign prostatic hyperplasia Diuretics A [12]
Fumaria officinalis/fumitory Infection, edema, hypertension, constipation β–blockers + calcium channel blockers + cardiac glycosides ↑   [17]
Gossipyum hirsutum/gossypol Male contraceptive Diuretics ↑, Hypokalemia Not known [17]
Laminariales/kelp Cancer, obesity Antihypertensives and anticoagulants ↑ Not known [17]
Medicago sativa/alfafa Arthritis, asthma, dyspepsia, hyperlipidemia, diabetes Warfarin ↑ Not known [12]
Aetheroleum Menthae piperitae/peppermint oil Irritable bowel syndrome Cardiac glycosides ↑ A [17]
Selenicereus grandiflorus/night blooming cereus CHF Angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitors + antiarrhythmics + β-blockers + calcium channel blockers + cardiac glycosides ↑ Not known [17]
Storphantus preussi/strophanthus CHF Cardiac glycosides ↑ Not known [17]
Tanacetum parthenium/feverfew Prevention of migraine Platelet inhibitors + anticoagulants ↑ A [12]
Taraxacum officinale/dandelion Laxative, diuretic Antihypertensives + diuretics ↑ A [12]
Trigonella Foenum-graecum/fenugreek Hypercholesterolemia anticoagulants + lipid-lowering drugs ↑ A, I [12]
Urtica dioica/nettle Diuretic, analgetic Diuretics + antihypertensives A [12]
Vaccinium myrtillus/bilberry Disturbed night vision, local inflammation, skin conditions, diarrhea, arthritis Anticoagulants ↑ A [17]
Vitex agnus castus/chaste tree Menstrual symptoms Beta-blockers + Antihypertensives ↑ A [12]
  1. Key:↑; effect induced; ↓ effect suppressed; A agonism, Anta antagonism, I inhibition, CHF chronic congestive heart failure patients