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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 1 Effects of anti-inflammatory diets on immunity

From: Cruciferous vegetables: prototypic anti-inflammatory food components

Anti-inflammatory Foods Microbiota-dependent Potential pathways Effects on Immunity References
cruciferous vegetables (carbazoles) + a AhR ligands Suppression of NFκB IL-22 ↑, maintenance of intraepithelial lymphocytes and innate lymphoid cells, suppression of inflammation [5, 6]
Cruciferous vegetables and fish (tryptophan) + b AhR ligands GPCRs IL-22 ↑, mucosal protection from inflammation [5, 6, 17]
cruciferous vegetables (sulfarophane) ? Suppression of NFκB Suppression of inflammation, induction of apoptosis, activation of phagocytosis [23, 24]
mediterrenian diet (enriched in ω-3 fatty acids) ? Gpr120 pro-inflammatory cytokines ↓ [43]
  1. Abbrevations
  2. AhR aryl hydrocarbon receptor
  3. GPCRs G-protein coupled receptors
  4. NFκB Nuclear factor kappaB
  5. Gpr G-protein receptor
  6. SCFA short chain fatty acids
  7. TH t helper cell
  8. aDiet results in an altered microbiota
  9. bTryptophan metabolized by microbiota (e.g. lactobacilli) to indole-3 aldehyde and kynurenine (both AhR ligands)