Skip to main content

International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Clinical Phytoscience Cover Image

Table 1 Antioxidants activities of West African plants

From: African natural products with potential antioxidants and hepatoprotectives properties: a review

Plants Family Part used Solvents Assay Methods Inhibition/IC50 Country of origin References
Abrus precatorius L. Leguminosae Leaf MeOH DPPH 72.48% at 5 mg/mL Nigeria [136]
Abrus precatorius L. Leguminosae Seed/Shell Oil DPPH/ABTS/LP/NO 52.9.1.9,2.1/3,3,1.4,1.2 mg/mL Nigeria [137]
Artemisia absinthii L. Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2228 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Acacia ataxacantha DC. Fabaceae Bark CH2Cl2/EtOAc DPPH 65/54% at 62.5 μg/mL Benin [138]
Acacia macrostachya Rchb. ex DC. Verbenaceae Root MeOH DPPH 4.30 μg/mL Burkina Faso [139]
Acalypha segetalis Mull. Euphorbiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH >200 μg/mL Nigeria [140]
Acalypha torta L. Euphorbiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH >200 μg/mL Nigeria [140]
Acanthospermum hispidium DC. Asteraceae Aerial parts MeOH DPPH Benin [141]
Adansonia digitata L. Bombacaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 77.36% Guinea [142]
Adansonia digitata L. Bombacaceae Leaf BtOH FRAP 78%. at 500 μg/mL Nigeria [143]
Adansonia digitata L. Bombacaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP 24.50 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Aframomum melegueta K.Schum. Zingiberaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 111.12% Guinea [142]
Aframomum melegueta K.Schum. Zingiberaceae (CH3)2CO DPPH/SAS 0.11/0.105 mg/mL Nigeria [145]
Albizia chevalieri Harms. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 94.732% at 250 μg/mL Nigeria [146]
Alchornea laxiflora Pax & K. Hoffm. Euphorbiaceae Leaf BtOH FRAP   Nigeria [143]
Alchornea ordifolia Mull. Arg. Euphorbiaceae Leaf EtOAc/(CH3) 2CO DPPH 99.4/79% at 1.56 mg/mL Nigeria [147]
Allium sativum L. Alliaceae Spice H2O DPPH/ABTS 1.4/0.66 mg/mL Nigeria [148]
Alstonia boonei De wild. Apocynaceae Cortex/Folium/Radix MeOH DPPH ++/++ Nigeria [38]
Alstonia boonei De wild. Apocynaceae Stem MeOH DPPH/FRAP 68.5/1.40% at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Althaeae radix L. Malvaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 59 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Amaranthus hybridus L. Amaranthaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 9.0 ± 2.1 μg/mL Nigeria Adetutu et al., 2013 [150]
Amaranthus viridis L. Amaranthaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 3.4 ± 0.25 μg/mL Nigeria Adetutu et al., 2015
Anarcadium occidentale L. Anacardaceae Bark MeOH DPPH/FRAP 43.5/0.70 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Anisopus mannii N.E.Br. Aslepiadaceae Stem/Leaf/Root H2O RSA 0.2/0.15/0.19 mM Nigeria [151]
Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr. Combretaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 79.09 at 5 mg/mL Nigeria [136]
Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr. Combretaceae Root H2O H2O2/Fe3+ 0.53/0.39% Nigeria [152]
Antidesma venosum E. Mey. ex Tul. Euphorbiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 9.53% Guinea [142]
Arctostasphylos uva-ursi L. (Spreng). Ericaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 13207 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Argemone Mexicana L. Papaveraceaea Entire plant MeOH DPPH 1.73 μg/mL Benin [141]
Asperulae herba L. Rubiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2557 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Balantiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 52.53 μg/mL Togo [153]
Bardanae folium Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2337 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Basilici herba L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 5314 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Bauhinia rufescens Lam. Caesalpiniaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 74.65% at 50 μg/mL Nigeria [154]
Besella alba L. Basellaceae Leaf/Stem MeOH DPPH +/− Nigeria [39]
Betulae folium L. Betulaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3896 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Blepharis lineariifolia Pers. Acanthaceae Stem/Leaf H2O DPPH 44 μg/mL Burkina Faso [155]
Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig Sapindaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 38.54% Guinea [142]
Boerhavia diffusa L. Nyctaginaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria [156]
Boswellia dalzielii Hutch. Burceraceae Stem back EtOH DPPH 83% at 10 μg/mL Benin [157]
Brachystegia eurycoma Harms. Fabaceae Seed EtOH DPPH 59.70 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. Brassicaceae Seed MeOH DPPH/FRAP 68.9/1.30% at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Bridelia ferruginea Benth. Euphorbiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 13.30% Guinea [142]
Bridelia micrantha Baill. Phyllanthaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 97.70/1.39 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Bursae pastoris herba Brassicaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 654 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Byrsocarpus coccineus Schumach. & Thonn. Connraceae Folium/Radix MeOH DPPH ++/++ Nigeria [38]
Byrsocarpus coccineus Schumach. & Thonn Connaraceae Root MeOH DPPH Benin [141]
Calendulae flos L. Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1347 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Calliandria surinamensis Engl. Fabaceae Flower MeOH DPPH <30% at 0.1 mg/mL Nigeria [159]
Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. Burseraceae Cortex MeOH DPPH ++++ Nigeria [38]
Cantaurii herba Rafn. Gentianaceae   H2O FRAP 1347 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Cantharelle cibarius Fr. Cantherallaceae Mushroom LPO 49.74 nM Nigeria [160]
Cantharellus cibarius Fr. Cantharellaceae Fruit MeOH/EtOH DPPH 2.68/3.12 mg/mL Nigeria [161]
Canthium setosum Hiern. Rubiaceae Aerial parts MeOH DPPH 3.47 μg/mL Benin [141]
Capsicum frutescens L. Solanaceae Spice H2O DPPH/ABTS 1.55/0.45 mg/mL Nigeria [148]
Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 0.58 mg/mL Nigeria [162]
Cassia sieberiana DC. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 50 μg/mL Nigeria [163]
Cassia sieberiana DC. Fabaceae Stem MeOH DPPH/FRAP 40.1/0.83 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Casstha filiformis mill. Lauraceae Stem MeOH DPPH/FRAP 75.8/1.61 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Casuarina equisetifolia L. Casuarinaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 88.97% at 100 μg/mL Benin [164]
Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. Pedaliaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 2.9 μg/mL Ivory coast [165]
Cetrariae lichen (L.) Ach. Parmeliaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 125 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Chamomillae flos L. Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2856 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Chellidonii herba L. Papaveraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3401 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Cichorii herba L. Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1408 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Citrus sinensis Pers. Rutaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 69.7/1.22 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Cleome gynandra L. Capparidaceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH >38.4 μg/mL Ivory coast [165]
Clerodendrum formicarum Gurke. Lamiacea Leaf MeOH DPPH >200 μg/mL Cameroo [140]
Clitocybe odora (Fr) P. Kumm. Tricholometaceae Mushroom LPO 52.10 nM Nigeria [160]
Cnestis ferruginea DC. Connaraceae Leaf H2O Fe2/RP/DPPH 45.25/121.5/21.55 μg/mL Ivory coast [166]
Cnestis ferruginea DC. Connaraceae Cortex/Folium/Radix MeOH DPPH ++++/++++/++++ Nigeria [38]
Cnidoscolus acontifolius (Mill.) I.M. Johnst. Euphorbiaceae Leaf BtOH FRAP 76% at 500 μg/mL Nigeria [143]
Cola lepidota K. Schum. Sterculiaceae Leaf MeOH/CHCl3 DPPH 190/50 μg/mL Nigeria [167]
Combretum micranthum G. Don. Combretaceae Leaf H2O ABTS 16.37 μMol Trolox/μg Burkina Faso [168]
Crataegi flos L. Rosaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3025 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Crateva adansonii Forst. F. Capparaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 1562. 52 mg/mL Nigeria Tsado et al., 2016b [169]
Crinum jagus (J.Thomps.) Dandy. Amarllidaceae Bulb MeOH DPPH/FRAP 85.78/1.86 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Crinum purpurascen Herbs. Liliaceae Folium/Radix MeOH DPPH ++/++ Nigeria [38]
Croton lobatus L. Euphorbiaceae Aerial parts MeOH DPPH 1.96 μg/mL Benin [141]
Cymbopogon citrates Stapf. Poaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 7.48 at 0.1% oil Burkina Faso [170]
Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov. Poaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 18.76 at 0.1% oil Burkina Faso [170]
Detarium microcarpum Guill. Caesalpiniaceae Seed EtOH DPPH 89.00 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Detarium microcarpum Guill. Caesalpiniaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP 48.45 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel. Caesalpiniaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 94.26% Guinea [142]
Dialium dinklagei Harms. Caesalpiniaceae Leaf H2O Fe2/RP/DPPH 14.75/133.5/21.85 μg/mL Ivory coast [166]
Dialium guineense Willd Caesalpiniaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 82.44% Guinea [142]
Dialium guineense Willd Caesalpiniaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Dichapetalum guineense (DC.) Keay. Dichapetalaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH Benin [141]
Dicliptera verticillata C. Chr. Acanthaceae Stem/Leaf H2O DPPH 785 μg/mL Burkina Faso [155]
Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC. Ebenaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 111.75% Guinea [142]
Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC. Ebenaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Diospyros monbuttensis Gurke. Fabaceae Leaf H2O Fe2+/RP/DPPH 9.41/> 200/22.25 μg/mL Ivory coast [166]
Duranta repens L. Verbenaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 72.61/1.71 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Dyschoriste perrottetii (Nees) Kuntze. Acanthaceae Stem/Leaf H2O DPPH 45 μg/mL Burkina Faso [155]
Ehinaceae purpurea L. (Monench) Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 4033 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Ekebergia senegalansis A. Juss. Meliaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 13.33 μg/mL Nigeria Aladesanmi et al., 2007 [156]
Entada Africana Guill. & Per. Fabaceae Stem back n-C6H12 DPPH/β-CLAMS/MLP 81.08/235.30/3.53 μg/mL Nigeria [83]
Entada africana Guill. & Per. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 0.40 μg/mL Togo [153]
Entada Africana Guill. & Per. Fabaceae Leaf/Stem bark/Leaf H2O DPPH 3.36/1.36/1.4 μg/mL Burkina Faso [171]
Entandrophragma angolense C. DC. Meliaceae Stem MeOH DPPH 70.34 at 5 mg/mL Nigeria [136]
Epilobii herba Rosaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 7899 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Equiseti herba Equisetaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2222 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Erythrina sigmoidea pobeg. Fabaceae Stem Bark MeOH DPPH >200 μg/mL Nigeria [140]
Ethulia conyzoides L.F. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 46.16 ± 1.52 μg/mL Nigeria [172]
Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Myrtaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 3.68 at 0.1% oil Burkina Faso [170]
Euphrasiae herba Orobandiaceae Leaf H2O FRAP 3107 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Farfarae folium Asteraceae Leaf H2O FRAP 5350 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Felicia muricata Nees. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH/(CH3) 2CO DPPH 70/410/120 μg/mL Nigeria [173]
Ficus asperifolia Miq. Moraceae Leaf H2O DPPH/Fe2/FRAP/NO/OH 78.65/59.27/44.05/47.03/29.25 at 5 mg/mL Nigeria [174]
Ficus capensis Thunb Moraceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 13.05% Guinea [142]
Ficus dicranostyla Mildbr. Moraceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH >38.4 μg/mL Côte [165]
Ficus exasperate Roxb. Moraceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 23% at 10 μg/mL Benin [157]
Ficus platyphylla Delile. Moraceae Stem bark MeOH DPPH 1.93 μg/mL Burkina Faso [139]
Ficus sycomorus L. Moraceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Flacourtia flavescens Willd. Flacourtiaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH >70% at 100 μg/mL Benin [157]
Foeniculi fructus B.P. Apiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 142 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Fragariae vesca L. Rosaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 11022 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Fraxini excelsior L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 7129 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Funtumia elastic (Preuss) Stapf. Apocynaceae Folium MeOH DPPH +++ Nigeria [38]
Garcina kola Heckel. Clusiaceae Seed MeOH DPPH/FRAP 69.65/1.33 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Gardenia erubescens Stapf & Hutch. Rubiaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Geranium robertianum L. Geraniaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 10696 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Gnetum africanum Welw. Gnetaceae Leaf MeOH    Nigeria [175]
Gongronema latifolia Bush Buck (En). Asclepiadaceae Leaf/Stem MeOH DPPH +++/+++ Nigeria [39]
Gongronema latifolia Bush Buck (En). Asclepiadaceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH 90.70 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Gongronema latifolia Bush Buck (En). Asclepiadaceae Leaf BtOH/H2O DPPH 0.082/0.245 mg/mL Nigeria [176]
Gossypium arboretum L. Malvaceae Back MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria Aladesanmi et al., 2012
Guiera senegalensis Lam. Combretaceae Stem/Leaf/Root H2O DPPH 15.4/20/17 μL/3 mL Nigeria [151]
Harungana madagascariensis Poir. Hypericaceae Root MeOH DPPH/FRAP 85/1.95 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Hederae folium Araliaceae   H2O FRAP 5100 μMol/L Nigeria [30]
Hedranthera barteri (Hook.f.). Apocynaceae Folium MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria [38]
Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon. Hericiaceae Mushroom LPO 36.31 nM Nigeria [160]
Hibisci flos L. Malvaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3157 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Malvaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 140.9 Nigeria [177]
Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell. Violaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH >70% at 100 μg/mL Benin [157]
Hygrophila auriculata (schumach.) Heine. Acanthaceae Stem/leaf H2O DPPH 20 μg/mL Burkina Faso [155]
Hymenocadia acida Tul. Phllanthacea Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 66.9/1.48 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Hypericum perforatum L. Hypericaceae   H2O FRAP 5127 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Icacina trichantha Oliv. Icacinaceae Cortex MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria [38]
Ipomoea asarifolia Roem. Convolvulaceae Stem/Leaf/Root H2O DPPH 50/42/65 μL/mL Nigeria [151]
Irvingia gabonensis Baill. ex Lanen. Irvingiaceae Seed EtOH DPPH 15.30 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Justicia galeopsis T. Anderson ex C.B. Clarke. Acanthaceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH >38.4 μg/mL Ivory Coast [165]
Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. Meliaceae Stem back n-C6H12 DPPH/β-CLAMS/MLP 50.00/13.86/2.99 μg/mL Nigeria [83]
Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. Meliaceae Stem bark MeOH DPPH 42.58 at 5 mg/mL Nigeria [136]
Khaya senegalensis A. Juss. Meliaceae Leaf H2O ABTS 15.47/21.97 μMol Trolox/μg Burkina Faso [168]
Kigelia Africana (Lam.) Benth. Bignoniaceae Leaf/Stem bark MeOH DPPH 56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL Ghana [178]
Laccaria amethystine (Huds) Cook. Hydnangiaceae Mushroom LPO 53.64 nM Nigeria [160]
Laccaria laccata (Scop) Cook. Hydnangiaceae Mushroom -- LPO 34.77 nM Nigeria [160]
Lactarius deliciousus (L. ex Fr) S.F. Gray. Russulaceae Mushroom LPO 34.46 nM Nigeria [160]
Lactuca taraxicofolia (Wild.) Schum. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 2.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL Nigeria Adetutu et al., 2015
Landolfia owariensis P. Beauv. Apocynaceae Folium MeOH DPPH +++ Nigeria [38]
Landolphia heudelotii A. DC. Apocynaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 8.34 s % Guinea [142]
Lannea acida A. Rich. Anacardiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 29.77% Guinea [142]
Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause. Anacardiaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Lannea nigritana (scott Elliot) Keay. Anacardiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 7.53% Guinea [142]
Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc. Verbenaceae Stem MeOH DPPH 5.96 μg/mL Burkina Faso [139]
Lapaca spp Lapacaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 51.15/1.01 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria Chinaka et al., 2013
Laportea Aestuans (L.) Chew. Urticaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH/O2/OH/NO/H2O2/ABTS/LPO 15.0/247.0/84.3/67.3/230.7/81.0/82.7 Nigeria [179]
Laurus nobilis L. Lauraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1260 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Lavandulae angustifolia Mill. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 7377 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Leea guinensis L. Leeceae Lignum MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria [38]
Lepidagathis anobrya Nees. Acanthaceae Stem/Leaf H2O DPPH 16.33 μg/mL Burkina Faso [155]
Lepista nuda (Bull.) Cook. Tricholometaceae Mushroom LPO 53.65 nM Nigeria [160]
Lepista saeva (Fr) Cook. Tricholometaceae Mushroom LPO 34.46 nM Nigeria [160]
Lippia multiflora Moldeuke. Verbanaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 39.29 at 0.1% oil Burkina Faso [170]
Luglandis folium Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 7432 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Macrolepiotata procera (Scp) Singer. Lepiotaceae Mushroom -- LPO 38.75 nM Nigeria [160]
Majoranae folium Mull. Arg. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 4453 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Mull. Arg. Euphorbiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 78.92/1.69 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Malvae herba L. Malvaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 927 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Mangifera indica Blume. Anacardiacea Leaf EtOH DPPH 0.313 mg/mL Nigeria [162]
Markhamia tomentosa K. schum. ex Engl Bignoniaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 16.50 μg/mL Nigeria [156]
Marrubium vulgare L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1653 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Massularia acuminata (G.Don) Bullock. Rubiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 4.00 μg/mL Nigeria [156]
Melissa officinalis L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 25234 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Mentha piperita L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 8987 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Achille Millefolium L. Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3228 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Monodora myristica Blanco. Annonaceae Seed CH2Cl2 DPPH 54.50 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Morinda lucida Benth. Rubiacae Leaf/Root Oil DPPH/ABTS/LP 7.82,6.20,0.08/7.82,8.82 and 0.02 mg/mL Nigeria [137]
Morus nigra L. Moraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2360 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Mucuna pruriens (L) DC. Fabaceae Leaf H2O/EtOH DPPH 32.63/41.40 at 10 mg/mL Nigeria [180]
Mucuna pruriens (L) DC. Fabaceae Seed EtOH DPPH 7.30 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Murraya koenigi (L.) Sprenge Rutaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 31.30/0.58 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv Cecropiaceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH 15.20 μg/mL Ivory coast [165]
Myristica fragrans Houtt. Myristicaceae (CH3) 2CO DPPH/SAS 0.10/0.135 mg/mL Nigeria [145]
Myrtilli fructus Ericaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 7539 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Nauclea latifolia Blanco. Rubiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 79.61% Guinea [142]
Nauclea latifolia Blanco. Rubiaceae Root MeOH DPPH 1.56 μg/mL Benin [141]
Nelsonia canescens spreng. Acanthaceae Stem/Leaf H2O DPPH 24.33 μg/mL Burkina Faso [155]
Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Bignoniaceae Leaf H2O Fe2/RP/DPPH 7.28/148/19.5 μg/mL Ivory coast [166]
Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Bignoniaceae Leaf BtOH FRAP 72% at 500 μg/mL Nigeria [143]
Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Bignoniaceae Leaf H2O RP/DPPH 148.0/19.5 Ivory coast [166]
Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.) Bignoniaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 155.17 mg/mL Nigeria Tsado et al., 2016b [169]
Nymphaea lotus L. Nympheaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 82.99% Guinea [142]
Ocimum basilicum L. Lamiaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 3.82 μg/mL Burkina Faso [170]
Ocimum canum L. Lamiaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 4.20 at 0.1% oil Burkina Faso [170]
Ocimum gratissimum L. Lamiaceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH 55.70 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Olax varidis L Olaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 58.19/1.19 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Oleae folium Hoffmans. & Link Oleaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3945 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Oncoba spinosa Forssk. Flacourtiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 13.52% Guinea [142]
Oxalis corniculata L. Oxalidaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 95.68% at 100 μg/mL Benin [164]
Ozoroa insignis Delile. Anacardiaceae Stem MeOH DPPH 7.53 μg/mL Burkina Faso [139]
Parinari curatelifolia Planch. Ex Benth. Chrysobalanaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 0.20 μg/mL Togo [153]
Parinari curatelifolia Planch. Ex Benth. Chrysobalanaceae Stem MeOH DPPH 10.5 μg/mL Burkina Faso [139]
Parinari excelsa Sabina. Chrysobalanaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 77.52% Guinea [142]
Parkia biglobosa Benth. Fabaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 92.25% Guinea [142]
Parkia biglobosa Benth. Fabaceae Stalk MeOH DPPH/FRAP 59.01/1.24 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Parkia biglobosa Benth. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH/EtOH DPPH 56.83/58.17% at 0.1 mg/mL Ghana. [181]
Parkia biglobosa Benth. Fabaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Pavetta corymbosa F.N. Williams. Rubiaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 75.34 at 10 μg/mL Benin [157]
Pavetta crassipes K. schum. Rubiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 82.35 at 5 mg/mL Nigeria [136]
Petroselini crispum (Mill) Apiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1318 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Phaseoli pericarpum Fabaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 319 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Phaseolus lunatus Haberle. Fabaceae Seed coat - DPPH 0.37 mg/mL Nigeria [182]
Picralima nitida Th. & H. Dur. Apocynaceae Seed MeOH DPPH/FRAP 55.3/1.38 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Piper guineense Thonn. Piperaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 36.90 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Plantago lancfolium Plantaginaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1727 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Plantago majorfolium Plantaginaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2733 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Pleioceras barteri Baill. Apocynaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH - Nigeria Aladesanmi et al., 2012
Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr) P. Kumm Pleuntaceae Mushroom - LPO 45.84 nM Nigeria [160]
Plumbago zeylanica L. Plumbaginaceae Root MeOH DPPH - Nigeria Aladesanmi et al., 2012
Polygonum aviculare L. Polygonaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1210 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Primulae radix L. Primulaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2197 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Psidium guajava L. (GCL). Myrtaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 0.04 mg/mL Nigeria [162]
Psidium guajava L. (GCL). Myrtaceae Bark MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria [156]
Psidium guayava L. (GCL). Myrtaceae Stem bark EtOH DPPH >70% at 100 μg/mL Benin [157]
Psorospermum febrifugum Spach. Hypericaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 2.3 μg/mL Ivory Coast [165]
Pterocarpus erinaceus Lam. Papilionaceae Aerial parts MeOH DPPH 3.37 μg/mL Benin [141]
Pterocarpus erinaceus Lam. Fabaceae Stem bark H2O DPPH 0.80 μg/mL Burkina Faso [183]
Pterocarpus erinaceus Lam. Fabaceae Leaf/Stem bark H2O ABTS 8.08/22.20 μMol Trolox/μg Burkina Faso [168]
Pterocarpus midbraedii Jacq. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH    Nigeria [175]
Pterocarpus milbraedii Jacq. Fabaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 20.30 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Pterocarpus santalinoides L’He’r. ex DC. Fabaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 8.18% Guinea [142]
Raphia sudanica A. Chev. Arecaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 93.98% Guinea [142]
Raphiostylis beninensis Planch. ex Benth. Icacinaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 43.33% Guinea [142]
Rhynchosia buettneri Harms. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 7.5 μg/mL Ivory Coast [165]
Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Root MeOH DPPH/FRAP 60.8/1.43 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Rosmarini officinalis L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1277 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Puccinia rubi Schumach. Phragmidiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 12211 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Puccinia rubi-idaei (DC.) P. Karst. Phragmidiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 10025 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Saba senegalensis (A.D.C) Pichon. Apocynaceae Stem/Leaf H2O DPPH 18.4 μg/mL Burkina Faso Yougbaré-Ziébrou et al., 2015 [184]
Saba senegalensis (A.D.C) Pichon. Apocynaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Sacocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R. Br. Rubiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 66.2/1.49 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Salicis cortex Senna occidentalis Saliaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 10892 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Salviae officinalis L. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 7603 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Sanbuci flos L. Caprifoliaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 4055 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Satureja herba Mill. Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 5339 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Schrankia leptocarpa DC. Mimosaceae Entire Plant MeOH DPPH 1.35 μg/mL Benin [141]
Sclerocarya birrea HO Chst. Anacardiaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Secamone afzelii (Roem. & Schut.) K. Schum. Asclepiadaceae Aerial parts MeOH DPPH 1.74 μg/mL Benin [141]
Senae folium L. Fabaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1078 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Serpylli herba Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 10868 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Sesanum indicum L. Pedallaceae Leaf CH2Cl2 DPPH 43.10 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Senna occidentalis (L.) Link. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 263.53 μg/mL Nigeria [185]
Sida acuta Burm. F. Malvaceae Whole plant H2O ABTS 6.12 μMol Trolox/μg Burkina Faso [168]
Solanium aethiopicum L. Solanaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 5.2 μg/mL Nigeria Adetutu et al., 2015
Solanum melongena L. Solanaceae Leaf MeOH    Nigeria [175]
Solidaginis virgaurea L. Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 4256 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre. Menispermaceae Folium MeOH DPPH +++ Nigeria [38]
Sphenoceutrum jollyanum Pierre. Menispermaceae Root MeOH DPPH ++ Nigeria [156]
Spiraea herba L. Rosaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 15256 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Spondias mombin Jacq. Anacardiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 93.83% Guinea [142]
Stigmata maydis L. Poaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 1009 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Strobilus lupuli L. Cannabidaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 2204 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Strophanthus hispidus DC. Apocynaceae Leaf, root MeOH DPPH 49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL Ghana [178]
Strychnos spinosa Lam. Loganiaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 111.71% Guinea [142]
Tamarindus indica L. Caesalpiniaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 116.75% Guinea [142]
Tamarindus indica L. Caesalpiniaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP 12.42 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F. Cucurbitaceae Leaf/Stem MeOH DPPH +/− Nigeria [39]
Telfaria occidentalis Hook. F. Cucurbitaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 1.8 ± 0.2 μg/mL Nigeria [150]
Teraxaci folium Asteraceae Not stated H2O FRAP 4600 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Terminalia avicennioides Guill. & Perr. Combretaceae Root H2O H2O2/Fe3+ 0.58/0.66 Nigeria [152]
Terminalia catappa L. Combretaceae Leaf Oil DPPH 0.084 mg/mL Nigeria [186]
Terminalia catappa L. Combretaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/FRAP 58.19/1.30 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub. Fabaceae Fruit EtOH DPPH 12.70 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub. Fabaceaee Leaf MeOH/EtOH DPPH 68.35/69.49% at 0.1 mg/mL Ghana. [181]
Thymi herba Lamiaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 9069 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Tiliae flos Mill. Malvaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3807 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Trema orientalis (L.) Blume. Cannabaceae Leaf H2O Fe2/RP/DPPH 24.55/24.3/22.75 μg/mL Ivory Coast [166]
Trichilia heudeloti. Planch. Meliaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 6.50 μg/mL Nigeria Aladesanmi et al., 2012
Urticae folium L. Urticaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 3168 mol/L Not stated [30]
Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. Annonaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 13.52% Guinea [142]
Uvaria chanae P. Beauv. Annonaceae Root MeOH DPPH/FRAP 95.08/1.9 at 400 μg/mL Nigeria [149]
Verbasi flos L. Scrophulariaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 603 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Verbenae herba Verbinaceaae Not stated H2O FRAP 2089 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Vernonia amygdalina Delile. Asteracea Leaf EtOH DPPH 19.33 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Vernonia Amygdalina Delile. Astereacea Leaf MeOH DPPH 85.8 at 20 μg/mL Nigeria [187]
Vernonia amygdalina Delile. Asteracea Leaf EtOH DPPH 2.30 mg/mL Nigeria [162]
Veronicae officinalis L. Plantaginaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 6514 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Violae tricolor L. Violaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 846 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Visci albi L. Santalaceae Not stated H2O FRAP 727 μMol/L Not stated [30]
Vitellaria paradoxa C.FGaertn Sapotaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP <17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Vitex doniana Sweet. Verbenaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 82.99% Guinea [142]
Vitex doniana Sweet. Verbenaceae Leaf H2O/EtOH DPPH 87.52/3.30 at 10 mg/mL Nigeria [180]
Voacanga Africana Stapf ex Scott Elliot. Liliaceae Folium MeOH DPPH ++++ Nigeria [38]
Xeoderris sthulmannii L. Fabaceae Stem bark MeOH DPPH 2.36 μg/mL Burkina Faso [139]
Ximenia Americana L. Olacaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP 17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
Xylopia aethiopica A. Rich. Annonaceae Fruit MeOH DPPH 13.70% Guinea [142]
Xylopia aethiopica A. Rich. Annonaceae Seed EtOH DPPH 10.70 μg/mL Nigeria [158]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Zingebracea Spice H2O DPPH/ABTS 1.21,/0.04 mg/mL Nigeria [148]
Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Zingiberaceae - (CH3) 2CO DPPH/SAS 0.075/0070 mg/mL Nigeria [145]
Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Rhamnaceae Fruit MeOH FRAP 18.28 mmol AEAC/100 g Burkina Faso [144]
  1. Key: +++ Strong intensity of yellow colouration, ++ Intermediate intensity of yellow colouration, + Weak intensity of yellow colouration, − No yellow colouration, + + − Antioxidant in low quantity, + ++ − Antioxidant in moderate quantity, ++++ − Antioxidant in large quantity, RSA radical scavenging activity, RC reducing power capacity, OH hydroxyl ion, NO nitric oxide radical inhibition, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide inhibition activity, LPO lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, ABTS + 2,2′-azinobis-3–ethylbenzothiozolin-6–sulfonic acid cation decolourization test, ß-CLAMS ß-carotene-linoleic acid model system, MLP microsomal lipid peroxydation, FRAP fe2+ chelating ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties, DPPH 1,1–dipheyl-2–picry-hydrazyl, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, TEAC trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, MeOH methanol, CH 2 Cl 2 dichloromethane, EtOH ethanol, EtOAc ethyl acetate, n-C 6 H 12 hexane, (CH3) 2CO acetone, H 2 O aqueous, BtOH butanol