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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

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Table 8 Hepatoprotective activity of some African medicinal plants

From: African natural products with potential antioxidants and hepatoprotectives properties: a review

Plants Family Part used Solvents Toxicant Dose of extract (mg/kg) Ameliorative effect demonstrated by the extract on toxin induced alterations in biomarkers of liver integrity Country of origine References
Acalypha racemosa H.M. Euphorbiaceae Leaf H2O CCL4 60 Decrease serum AST, ALT, and total bilirubin and increase serum TP and ALB concentrations Nigeria [312]
Acalypha wilkesiana L. Euphorbiaceae Leaf H2O PCM 100/200/300 Decrease serum AST, ALT and ALP activities and prevent histopathological alterations in liver Nigeria [313]
Aframomum melegueta K. Schum. Zingiberaceae Fruit H2O EtOH 100 Decrease serum AST, ALT and TG. Increase serum SOD GSH and prevent histopathological alterations in liver Nigeria [314]
Ajuga iva (L.) Lamiacea Aerial parts Oil CCL4 50 Decreas serum ALP,AST, ALT Libya [315]
Alchornea cordifolia Mull. Arg. Euphorbiaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 300 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP and TB Nigeria [147]
Allanblackia gabonensis (Pellegr.) Bamps. Guttiferae Stem bark H2O PCM 100/200 Decrease serum ALT, AST, bilirubin and MDA, increase SOD, CAT and GSH Cameroon [111]
Anacardium occidentale L. Anacardiaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 500/1000 Decrease serum AST, ALT and ALP Nigeria [316]
Andrographis paniculata Bum.F. Acanthaceae Leaf H2O CCL4 100–300 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP, TB,DBL,CHL, TG, LDL, VLDL and MDA Nigeria [317]
Annona muricata L. Annonaceae Leaf EtOH PCM 400 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP, TP and TB levels. Prevented toxins-induced liver necrosis Nigeria [318]
Azadirachta indica A, Juss. Meliaceae Leaf EtOH PCM 300 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, CHOL and TG. Prevented toxins induced alterations in haematological parameters Nigeria [319]
Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile. Balantitiaceae Stem bark H2O PCM 100 Decrease serum AST, ALT and ALP activities Nigeria [320]
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Theaceae Leaf H2O Tamoxifen 45 Decrease serum AST, ALT and TBARS egypt [321]
Carica papaya L. Caricaceae Leaf H2O PCM and CC14 100/300 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP, BIL and MDA. Increase GSH, CAT and SOD Nigeria [322]
Cassia italic Mill. cesalpiniaceae Leaf EtOH CCL4 200 Decrease serum and liver AST, ALT, ALP and GGT. Nigeria [323]
Cassia Occidentalis L. Caesalpinoidae Leaf H2O PCM 250/500 Prevented vascular congestion, periportal infiltrates of chronic inflammatory cells and periportal oedema. Nigeria [324]
Cassia sieberiana DC. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 100/200/400 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP MDA. Increase serum CAT Nigeria [163]
Cassia singueana Burkill. H.M. Fabaceae Root MeOH CCL4 50 Decrease serum AST, ALT BIL, MDA and LDL Increase serum HDL,SOD, CAT, Nigeria [325]
Chrysophyllum Albidum G. Don. Sapotaceae Leaf EtOH CCL4 500/1000/1500 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP and TB. Prevented toxins-induced centrilobular fat ty degeneration and necrosis in liver Nigeria [326]
Cochlospermum tinctorium A. Rich. Cochlospermaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 200 Decrease serum ALT, AST, bilirubin and MDA and prevent histopathological alterations in liver Nigeria [72]
Cochlospermum Tinctorium A. Rich. Cochlospermaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 200 Decrease serum AST, ALT, CHOL, MDA and BIL levels. Nigeria [72]
Costus afer L. Zingiberaceae Stem MeOH ALC 60/120 Decrease serum AST, ALP Nigeria [327]
Echinops galalensis Schweinf. Asteraceae Aerial parts MeOH CCL4 100 μg/mL Decreas AST, ALT, MDA level and increase SOD activities Egypt [102]
Erythrina senegalensis L. Fabaceae Stem bark EtOH CCL4 100 Decrease serum ALT, AST and lipid peroxidationin liver homogenate Cameroon [116]
Ficus chlamydocarpa Mildbr. & Burret Moraceae Stem bark MeOH CCL4 50–200 Increase hepatic GSH, decrease liver MDA decrease AST, ALT and LDH Cameroon [99]
Ficus exasperate Vahl. Moraceae Leaf EtOH PCM 125/150/500 Decrease serum AST,ALT,ALP and TB Nigeria [115]
Ficus exasperata Vahl. Moraceae Leaf EtOH PCM 125–500 Increase liver ALT, AST but decrease liver ALP and bilirubin level Nigeria [115]
Gongronema latifolium Asclepiadaceae, Leaf H2O CCL4 500 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP TB,CRT, urea, CHOL andTG Nigeria [328]
Harungana madagascariensis Lam. ex Poiret. Hypericaceae Root H2O PCM 100–500 Decrease serum ALT, AST, ALP and FBG but increase serum levels of TP and ALB Nigeria [329]
Hibiscus cannabinus L. Malvaceae Leaf H2O PCM/cm3 1600 Decrease serum AST, ALT, BIL and MDA. Prevented toxin induced severe inflamm at ion and liver necrosis Nigeria [330]
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Malvaceae Flower EtOH CCL4 200/300 Decrease serum ALT, AST, ALP,TC, LDL-C, TG and liver MDA level. 1ncrease in HDL-C, vitamins A, C, and β-carotene level Nigeria [331]
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Malvaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 500/1000 Decrease serum ALT, AST, ALP, LDH and TBARS but increase serum GSH, SOD and CAT Nigeria [177]
Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. Malvacea Leaf MeOH CCL4 600/1000 Increase serum SOD, CAT, GSH and decrease serum ALP Nigeria [332]
Irvingia gabonensis Irvingiaceae Leaf EtOH Sodium arsenite 250/500 Decrease serum ALT, AST and γGT and prevent histopathological alterations in liver Nigeria [100]
Khaya grandifoliola C.DC. Meliaceae Stem bark EtOAc/MeOH CCL4 25/100 Decreas serum ALP,AST, ALT and TP; Increase liver TBARS, SOD,GSH and GR) in liver. Cameroon [83]
Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A Juss. Meliaceae Stem bark H2O PCM 100 Decrease serum AST, ALT and ALP activities Nigeria [320]
Lawsonia inermis L. Lythraceae Leaf H2O CCL4 100/150 Decrease serum AST and ALT Nigeria [107]
Lawsonia inermis L. Lythraceae Leaf MeOH CC14 100/200 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP. TP and BIL. Prevented toxin induced necrosis of hepatic architecture with vacuolization and congestion of sinusoids Sudan [106]
Mangifera Indica L. Anacardiaceae Stem bark H2O/EtOH PCM 200 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP and MDA increase TP, GSH, CAT and SOD Nigeria [333]
Marrubium vulgare L. Lamiacea Aerial parts Oil CCL4 50 Decreas serum ALP,AST, ALT Libya [315]
Moringa oleifera L. Moringaceae Leaf EtOH Alcohol 300 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP, GGT andprevented histopathological changes in liver. Nigeria [63]
Nauclea latifolia L. Rubiaceae Leaf EtOH PCM 400 Decrease serum AST, ALT, increase serum TP, ALB, CAT,GPx andSOD concentrations Nigeria [334]
Newbouldia Laevies (P. Beauv) Seem. Ex Burea Bignoniaceae Leaf EtOH CCL4 100/300 Decrease serum AST, ALT,ALP,TB,TP andCHL Nigeria [335]
Ocimum americanum L. Lamiaceae Leaf H2O PCM 200/400 Decrease serum ALP, AST, ALT. TBIL and preserve liver architecture Nigeria [94]
Ocimum gratissimum L. Lamiaceae Leaf H2O CCL4 500 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP TB,CRT, urea, CHOL andTG Nigeria [328]
Prosopis africana (Guill. & Perr.) Taub. Mimosaceae Stem bark H2O PCM 100 Decrease serum AST, ALT and ALP activities Nigeria [320]
Rosmarinus officinalis L. Lamiacea Aerial parts Oil CCL4 50 Decreas serum ALP,AST, ALT Libya [315]
Senna alata (L.) Roxb. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH CCL4 400 Decrease serum ALT, AST, ALP, total and direct bilirubin and liver TBARS, increase serum total protein and albumin and prevent histopathological alterations in liver Nigeria [68]
Spathodea campanulata P. Beauv. Bignoniaceae Stem bark H2O CCL4 100/300/625 Decrease serum AST, ALT and GGT and prevent histopathological alterations in liver Ghana [86]
Sphenocentrum jollyanum L. Menispermaceae Stem bark MeOH CCL4 50/100/200 Decrease serum AST,ALT, ALP, TB and LP and Increase liver TP, SOD, CAT, GPx GST S. Africa [96]
Swietenia Mahogani (L.) Jacq. Maliaceae Leaf H2O Alcohol 250/500 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP BIL and CRT Nigeria [336]
Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F. Cucurbitaceae Leaf EtOH CCL4 500 Increase livee AST, ALT, ALP and prevented toxin-induced central vein congestion with eroded endothelium and haemolised blood vessels, pkynotic nucleic and fats infiltration Nigeria [337]
Thymus capitatus L. Lamiacea Aerial parts Oil CCL4 50 Decreas serum ALP,AST, ALT Libya [315]
Tulbaghia violacea Harv. Alliaceae Rhizome Atherosclerogenic (ath) 250/500 Decrease Serum TG, TC, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TBARS, fibrinogen, LDH, AST,ALT, ALP, BIL,CRET and prevent histopathological alterations in liver South Africa [263]
Uvaria afzelii P. Beauv. Annonaceae Root MeOH CCL4 125/250/500 Decreases serum ALT, AST, ALP, total and un-conjugated bilirubin Nigeria [76]
Vernonia ambigua L. Asteraceae Leaf EtOH CCL4 250/500 Decrease serum ALT, AST and ALP, TB, CHOL, TGA increase TP and ALB Nigeria [90]
Vernonia amygdalina Delile. Asteraceae Leaf EtOH PCM 300 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP, GGT, CHOL and TG. Prevented toxins induced alterations in haematological parameters Nigeria [319]
Vernonia amygdalina Delile. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH   20/60 Increase liver and kidney AST and ALT, Nigeria [338]
Vitellaria paradoxa C.F. Gaertn. Sapotaceae Stem bark H2O PCM 100 Decrease serum AST, ALT and ALP activities Nigeria [320]
Xylopia aethiopica Delile. Annonaceae Stem bark H2O CCL4 250/500 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP and BIL Nigeria [339]
Satureja punctata (Benth.) Briq. Lamiaceae Aerial parts H2O Fe-NTA 250/500 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP Ethiopia [291]
Solanecio angulatus (Vahl) C. Jeffrey Asteraceae Leaf H2O Fe-NTA 250/500 Decrease serum AST and ALT, Ethiopia [291]
Cineraria abyssinica Sch. Bip.ex A. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH/H2O CCL4 200 Decrease serum AST, ALT, ALP. Prevented toxins induced liver necrosis and inflammation Ethiopia [340]
  1. Key: ALT alanine aminotransferase, AST aspartate amino transferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, TP total bilirubin, DB direct bilirubin, LDL low density lipoprotein, VLDL very low density lipoprotein, MDA malondialdehyde, CAT catalase, GPx glutathione peroxidase, SOD superoxide dismutase, CRT creatinine, CHOL cholesterol, TG triglyceride, CCL 4 carbon tetrachloride, Fe-NTA ferric nitrilotriacetate, PCM paracetamol, MeOH methanol, CH 2 Cl 2 dichloromethane, EtOH ethanol, EtOAc ethyl acetate, n-C 6 H 12 Hexane; (CH3)2 CO acetone, H 2O aqueous, btoh:butanol