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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 1 The chemical composition of Zingiber officinale essential oil from different geographical region

From: Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a review on its composition and bioactivity

Yield Rhizomes Components Location Ref
1.02
1.84%
Fresh
Dried
β-zingiberene (12.2%), geraniol (15.0%), neral (8.9%), β-bisabolene (5.6%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (6.4%)
β-zingiberene (28.1%), geraniol (9.0%), neral (5.3%), β-bisabolene (8.4%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (10.6%)
Nigeria [10]
- Fresh Zingiberene + zingiberol (38.9%), ar-curcumene (17.7%), β-sesquiphellandrene+β-bisabolene (11%), β-phellandrene (4.9%), linalool+α-terpiniol (3.8%) Bangalore Market [16]
1.2% Dried Zingiberene (32%), β-sesquiphellandrene (15.6%), β-bisabolene (9.3%), ar-curcumene (15.9%) market Iran [17]
- fresh α-zingiberene (23.9%), citral (21.7%) Brazil [18]
- - Zingiberene (20-28%), ar-Curcumene (6-10%), β-Sesquiphellandrene (7-11%), β-Bisabolene (5-9%) Australia [19]
- - α-zingiberene (29-40%), β-Sesquiphellandrene (10-14%), ar-Curcumene (5-11%), camphene (4.5-10%), β-bisabolene (2.5-9%),
α-zingiberene (35-40%), β-sesquiphellandrene (11.5-13.5%), ar-curcumene (6.5-9%), camphene (5-8%), β-bisabolene (2.5-5.5%)
α-zingiberene (23-45%), β-sesquiphellandrene (8-17%), ar-curcumene (3-11%), camphene (0.2-12%), β-bisabolene (3-7%)
China
India
west Africa
ISO 16928:2014
2.22%-4.17%. unpeeled rhizomes cultivars Camphene (8.49%), neral (4.95%), geranial (12.36%), zingiberene (20.98%) and β-sesquiphellandrene (7.96%) North-East India [20]
  - Zingiberene(10.5-16.6%), ar-Curcumene (2.9-9.8%), β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.8-7.2%), e-citral (7.4-10.5%), z-citral (5.3-7%), o-cymene (0.9-6.5%), camphene (0.9-7.6%), limonene (1.3-6.4%) India [21]
2.4% w/w - Zingiberene (29.5%), sesquiphellandrene (18.4%), farnesene (6.46%), germacrene D (3.58%), neral (2.5%), geranial (3.46%), Nigeria [11]
2.1% - ar-cucumene (11.7-12.6%), β-bisabolene (4.1-8.1%) α-zingiberene (10.3 %), β-sesquiphellandrene (7.4 %) Vietnam [22]
- - citral (30.8%), zingiberene (17.1%), β-bisabolene, geranyl acetate (6.7%), β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.9%), 1,8-cineol (6.1%) and geraniol (6.1%) Alergia [23]