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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 2 The antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oils

From: Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a review on its composition and bioactivity

Essential oil Main components Method Control Results Reference
Brazilian ginger oil α-zingiberene
β-sesquiphellandrene
ar-curcumene
α-farnesene
β-bisabolene
geranial
Disc diffusion - Sensitive Microorganisms
Staphylococcus aureus
Listeria monocytogenes,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Salmonella typhimurium
Resistant Microorganisms
Shigella flexneri
Escherichia coli
[24]
Ginger oil - Microcalorimetry - The higher sensitivity of S. aureus than E. coli [28]
Chinese ginger oil - Microbroth dilution assay (mg/ml) - S. aureus (8.69)
B. subtilis (86.92)
E. coli (173.84)
Pencillium spp. (869.2)
A. niger (inactive)
[29]
Ginger oil - Agar diffusion
Microbroth Dilution assay
Tea tree oil Acinetobacter baumannii (6 mm)
MDR-A. baumannii (10 mm)
MDR-A. baumannii (MIC50 and MIC90 2, 4 mg/ml)
[30]
Vietnam ginger oil ar-cucumene
β-bisabolene
α-zingiberene
β-sesquiphellandrene
Agar Diffusion Cup Method (mm) - S. epidermidis (12-12.5)
S. aureus (11.5)
B. pumilus (10.0-10.6)
B. subtilis (12.2-13.0)
E. coli (12)
P. aeruginosa (inactive)
Salmonella abony (11.0)
Saccharomyces cerevisiae (16.0-17.0)
C. albicans (13-14.1)
A. niger (32.3)
Rhizopus nigricans (17-17.4)
Penicillium sp. (38-39.5)
Botrytis cinerea (30.0)
[22]
Ginger oil - Disk diffusion assay
Broth dilution assay
- Weak inhibitor against S. pneumoniae R36A [31]
Algerian ginger oil citral (30.8%)
zingiberene (17.1%)
Geranyl acetate (6.7%)
1,8-cineol (6.1%)
β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.9%)
Disk diffusion assay (mm) sulfamethoxazole, penicillin G, ampicillin and gentamicin S. aureus (9)
B. subtilis( 13)
S. pyogenes (11)
P. aeruginosa (9)
Candida koseri (inactive)
A. niger (inactive)
S. typhi (10)
[23]
Indian ginger oil - disc diffusion method
Microdilution assay
Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole T. rubrum (72 mm, <0.06 μl/ml)
M. gypseum (69 mm, 0.06 μl/ml)
[33]
Ginger oil zingiberene (37.65 %)
δ-amorphene (19.8%)
α-curcumin (11.3%)
α-bisabolene (10.4%)
Antifungal activity
Antiaflatoxigenic activity
- significant effects on A. flavus and aflatoxin B1 and B2 [34]
Ginger oil zingiberene (37.65 %)
δ-amorphene (19.8%)
α-curcumin (11.3%)
α-bisabolene (10.4%)
Microbroth dilution assay - Fusarium verticillioides (MIC 2.5 mg/ml) [18]