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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 2 The antimicrobial activity of ginger essential oils

From: Zingiber officinale Rosc. essential oil, a review on its composition and bioactivity

Essential oil

Main components

Method

Control

Results

Reference

Brazilian ginger oil

α-zingiberene

β-sesquiphellandrene

ar-curcumene

α-farnesene

β-bisabolene

geranial

Disc diffusion

-

Sensitive Microorganisms

Staphylococcus aureus

Listeria monocytogenes,

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Salmonella typhimurium

Resistant Microorganisms

Shigella flexneri

Escherichia coli

[24]

Ginger oil

-

Microcalorimetry

-

The higher sensitivity of S. aureus than E. coli

[28]

Chinese ginger oil

-

Microbroth dilution assay (mg/ml)

-

S. aureus (8.69)

B. subtilis (86.92)

E. coli (173.84)

Pencillium spp. (869.2)

A. niger (inactive)

[29]

Ginger oil

-

Agar diffusion

Microbroth Dilution assay

Tea tree oil

Acinetobacter baumannii (6 mm)

MDR-A. baumannii (10 mm)

MDR-A. baumannii (MIC50 and MIC90 2, 4 mg/ml)

[30]

Vietnam ginger oil

ar-cucumene

β-bisabolene

α-zingiberene

β-sesquiphellandrene

Agar Diffusion Cup Method (mm)

-

S. epidermidis (12-12.5)

S. aureus (11.5)

B. pumilus (10.0-10.6)

B. subtilis (12.2-13.0)

E. coli (12)

P. aeruginosa (inactive)

Salmonella abony (11.0)

Saccharomyces cerevisiae (16.0-17.0)

C. albicans (13-14.1)

A. niger (32.3)

Rhizopus nigricans (17-17.4)

Penicillium sp. (38-39.5)

Botrytis cinerea (30.0)

[22]

Ginger oil

-

Disk diffusion assay

Broth dilution assay

-

Weak inhibitor against S. pneumoniae R36A

[31]

Algerian ginger oil

citral (30.8%)

zingiberene (17.1%)

Geranyl acetate (6.7%)

1,8-cineol (6.1%)

β-Sesquiphellandrene (5.9%)

Disk diffusion assay (mm)

sulfamethoxazole, penicillin G, ampicillin and gentamicin

S. aureus (9)

B. subtilis( 13)

S. pyogenes (11)

P. aeruginosa (9)

Candida koseri (inactive)

A. niger (inactive)

S. typhi (10)

[23]

Indian ginger oil

-

disc diffusion method

Microdilution assay

Clotrimazole, Ketoconazole

T. rubrum (72 mm, <0.06 μl/ml)

M. gypseum (69 mm, 0.06 μl/ml)

[33]

Ginger oil

zingiberene (37.65 %)

δ-amorphene (19.8%)

α-curcumin (11.3%)

α-bisabolene (10.4%)

Antifungal activity

Antiaflatoxigenic activity

-

significant effects on A. flavus and aflatoxin B1 and B2

[34]

Ginger oil

zingiberene (37.65 %)

δ-amorphene (19.8%)

α-curcumin (11.3%)

α-bisabolene (10.4%)

Microbroth dilution assay

-

Fusarium verticillioides (MIC 2.5 mg/ml)

[18]