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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 1 Overview of damage and damage rate (mean ± SD) in bone marrow cells of mice after 24 h of oral (p.o.) administration of nCNSL, iCNSL and Cardanol

From: Cytogenotoxic and mutagenic profiling of cashew nut shell liquids and cardanol

GroupsSexDamage IndexFrequency of Damage
NCa (10 ml/kg)M15.0 ± 3.614.8 ± 3.4
F10.2 ± 1.310.2 ± 1.3
PCb (50 mg/kg)M120.2 ± 10.8a98.6 ± 1.3a
F98.8 ± 1.3a98.8 ± 1.3a
nCNSL (mg /kg)17.3M64.2 ± 36.560.0 ± 32.5
F59.8 ± 29.852.8 ± 26.6
34.7M54.2 ± 21.247.2 ± 37.0
F76.6 ± 16.1c64.2 ± 11.0c
69.5M48.0 ± 30.439.8 ± 19.2
F86.6 ± 14.8b67.0 ± 4.4a
iCNSL (mg /kg)17.3M13.2 ± 5.212.0 ± 5.4
F16.2 ± 12.116.2 ± 12.1
34.7M20.8 ± 13.013.6 ± 3.4
F17.2 ± 6.316.6 ± 6.6
69.5M21.4 ± 11.621.2 ± 11.4
F19.0 ± 18.119.0 ± 18.1
Cardanol (mg /kg)17.3M47.0 ± 21.540.4 ± 8.3
F62.2 ± 12.6b51.8 ± 5.5b
34.7M43.4 ± 6.137.6 ± 5.3b
F66.4 ± 7.4b55.4 ± 4.2a
69.5M47.0 ± 21.744.4 ± 9.3
F61.2 ± 12.13b51.8 ± 5.5b
  1. NC: negative control (DW); PC: positive control (cyclophosphamide); nCNSL/iCNSL/Cardinol (17.3, 347 and 69.5 mg/kg); index of damage (ID): 0 (no damage, 0 × 100 cells) 400 (maximum damage, 4 × 100 cells); frequency of damage (FD): based on the number of cells with tail-tail cell lines; significance compared to the negative control a p <0.0001; b p <0.01; c p <0.05; two-way ANOVA (with non-parametric test) followed by Tukey’s test (n = 10 animals; M5:F5)