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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 2 Determination of binucleated cells with micronuclei (mean ± SD) in bone marrow cells of mice after 24 h of oral administration of nCNSL, iCNSL and Cardanol

From: Cytogenotoxic and mutagenic profiling of cashew nut shell liquids and cardanol

GroupsSexMicronucleusRelation 
EPC/NPCBinucleated
NCa (10 ml/kg)M1.0 ± 0.51.7 ± 0.213.1 ± 3.2
F1.0 ± 0.51.7 ± 0.213.1 ± 3.2
PCb (50 mg/kg)M13.8 ± 1.5a0.5 ± 0.2a145.8 ± 42.7a
F15.0 ± 2.5a0.5 ± 0.2a145.8 ± 42.7a
nCNSL (mg /kg)17.3M3.0 ± 1.01.7 ± 0.12.3 ± 0.3
F1.0 ± 0.41.4 ± 0.32.8 ± 0.2
34.7M2.0 ± 0.51.5 ± 0.32.6 ± 0.4
F1.4 ± 0.21.3 ± 0.02.6 ± 0.4
69.5M2.6 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.32.1 ± 0.3
F2.0 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.23.0 ± 0.3
iCNSL (mg /kg)17.3M1.2 ± 0.31.2 ± 0.22.2 ± 0.5
F0.8 ± 0.31.3 ± 0.33.0 ± 0.3
34.7M1.4 ± 0.41.6 ± 0.32.0 ± 1.4
F1.6 ± 0.51.2 ± 0.23.6 ± 2.3
69.5M1.0 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.51.6 ± 0.9
F1.6 ± 0.21.7 ± 0.61.0 ± 0.4
Cardanol (mg /kg)17.3M2.0 ± 0.01.2 ± 0.12.8 ± 0.2
F2.2 ± 0.21.2 ± 0.13.4 ± 0.0
34.7M1.6 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.23.7 ± 0.9
F2.2 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.23.8 ± 0.7
69.5M1.2 ± 0.21.5 ± 0.32.7 ± 0.2
F2.0 ± 0.31.7 ± 0.53.4 ± 0.0
  1. NC: negative control (DW); PC: positive control (cyclophosphamide); nCNSL/iCNSL/Cardanol (17.3, 347 and 69.5 mg/kg); BN: binucleated, EPC/NPC: polychromatic cells/normochromatic cells; a p <  0.0001 compared to the NC; two-way ANOVA (with non-parametric test) followed by Tukey’s test (n = 10 animals; M5:F5)