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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 2 In vivo and in vitro studies of medicinal plants used in the treatment of diabetes in Morocco

From: Ethnopharmacological review of medicinal plants used to manage diabetes in Morocco

FamilyPlant speciesVernacular namePlant extracts usedDose (s) usedModels used in the studyResultsReferences
AmaranthaceaeAnabasis aretioides Moq. & Coss. ex BungeChajra ma yeharrekha rih/selliiAqueous extract of aerial part5 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant reduction on blood glucose levels in STZ rats (p < 0.0001)[41]
AmaranthaceaeAtriplex halimus L.LegtefAqueous extract of the leaves200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Aqueous extract produced 54% (P < 0.001) decrese in fasting blood glucose levels compared to the initial fasting blood glucose levels prior to the treatment[42]
AmaranthaceaeDysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin & ClemantsMkhinzaCrude extract of the leaves100, 200 and 300 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Reduction in blood glucose in case of crude treatment groups, as compared with that of the control group[43]
AmaryllidaceaeAllium ampeloprasum L.BorroEssential oils from the green parts150 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The essential oil of A. ampeloprasum decreased the blood glucose level significantly (P < 0.05) at the dose of 200 mg/kg.[44]
AmaryllidaceaeAllium cepa L.BaslaAqueous extracts of the whole plant200, 250 or 300 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsA.cepa at 200 mg/kg reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 62.9% (292.3 ± 29.0 to 108.2 ± 4.6), at 250 mg/kg it reduced fasting blood glucose levels by 69.7% (296.3 ± 37.8 to 89.8 ± 4.3) whereas at 300 mg/kg it reduced it by 75.4% (297.8 ± 37.5 to 73.4 ± 3.0)[45]
AmaryllidaceaeAllium sativum L.Tiskert /ToumaAqueous extract of the bulbs500 mg / kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)At weeks 2, 5 and 7 of garlic extract treatment, the serum glucose levels of the garlic-treated diabetic rats were reduced by 29%, 68% and 57%, respectively in comparison to control diabetic rats.[46]
AnacardiaceaePistacia atlantica Desf.Btem/Igg/DrouN-hexane extract of the seeds200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The administration of P. atlantica extracts body wt. tended to bring the blood glucose significantly toward normal values from the beginning of the experiment[47]
AnacardiaceaePistacia lentiscus L.Trou/TidektCrude gum100 mg / kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsAfter 6 h, there was decreased in blood glucose (280.8 ± 9.0) but after 24 h crude Pistacia gum showed significant decrease(195.2 ± 20.4) as compared to diabetic untreated rats (352.4 ± 23.6)[48]
ApiaceaeAmmi visnaga (L.) Lam.Bachnikha / BarghanisseAqueous extract of fruits20 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant decrease of blood glucose in normal rats 6 h after a single oral administration (P < 0.005) and 9 days after repeated oral administration (P < 0.05).[49]
ApiaceaeAmmodaucus leucotrichus Coss.Kamoun soufiAqueous extract of fruits10 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant reduction in blood glucose levels after four (p < 0.01) and 6 h (p < 0.001) of treatment. This effect was more pronounced than glibenclamide which caused a significant decrease in blood glucose at the fourth (p < 0.05) and sixth (p < 0.01) hour after oral administration[50]
ApiaceaeApium graveolens L.KrafessHexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of stalk and leaves100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Maximum percentage of blood glucose reduction in normoglycemic mice at 8 h with 400 mg/kg doses of chloroform extract was 37%. However, hexane extract and methanol extract at the same doses produce only a small effect[51]
ApiaceaeCarum carvi L.LkarwyaEthanolic extract of the seeds0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significantly decreased serum glucose and insulin in diabetic rats in 3 and 5 h but not in healthy rats.[52]
ApiaceaeCoriandrum sativum LKosborAqueous extract of fruits250 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The aqueous extract of fruits decreased the blood glucose level statistically significant when compared with diabetic control[53]
ApiaceaeCuminum cyminum L.KamounEthanolic extract of the seeds250 mg / kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Around 17.7% and 17.1% decline in blood glucose levels at 0–300 and 0–1440 min, respectively, on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats[54]
ApiaceaeDaucus carota L.KhizouAlcoholic extract of the seeds100, 200, 300 mg / kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The administration of D. carota seeds extract (300 mg/kg) for 3 days decreased glucose serum level (p < 0.05)[55]
ApiaceaeFoeniculum vulgare Mill.NafaaEssential oil extracted from the whole plant30 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Ingestion of essential oil corrected the hyperglycemia from (162.5 ± 3.19 mg/dl) to (81.97 ± 1.97 mg/dl) with p < 0.05[56]
ApiaceaePetroselinum crispum (Mill.) FussMaadnoussAqueous extract of the leaves2 g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Diabetic rats showed a gradual reduce in blood glucose levels over days 14—42. Maximum reduction in the blood glucose levels was observed on the day 42, and the reduction was about 50%.[10]
ApiaceaePimpinella anisum L.Habbat hlawaDifferent fractions of methanolic extract (hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, aqueous)100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 μg/mlα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeAt the concentration of 500 μg/ml, the sequence of inhibitory effects on α-amylase and α- glucosidase activities respectively had the order as follows: Ethyl acetate (94% and 87%) > hexane (93% and 86%) > benzene (91% and 85%) > methanol (84% and 83%) > aqueous (81% and 79%) > n-butanol (75% and 77%).[57]
ApocynaceaeCalotropis procera (Aiton) Dryand.TurjaChloroform extract of leaves and flowers10, 20 and 50 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The reduction in serum glucose levels was better on the 21st and 27th days of treatment[58]
ApocynaceaeCaralluma europaea (Guss.) N.E.Br.DaghmousMethanolic extract of the aerial parts250, 300 mg / kg BWAlloxan-induced diabetes in miceThe methanolic extract exhibited a continuous marked reduction of blood glucose levels (P < 0.001) particularly 6–8–10 h after treatment in diabetic mice[59]
ApocynaceaeNerium oleander L.Defla/AliliMethanolic extract of the leaves50 and 200 mg/kg BWAlloxan-induced diabetes in miceGlucose level was lowered from 255.66 ± 1.52 mg/dl on day 0 to 67.00 ± 6.24 mg/dl in day 20, accounting for a significant (p < 0.001) 73.79% decrease[60]
ArecaceaeChamaerops humilis L.Dum /Tiguezden / IgnaddAqueous extract of the leaves10 mg / kg BWExperimentally induced obesity, hyperglycemia and hyperlidemia (OHH) in ratsThe plasma glucose levels of the OHH rats decreased significantly with daily dosing with the plant-extract [from baseline 12.04 ± 0.94 mmol/L to 6.10 ± 0.27 mmol/L (P < 0.05) after 15 days, and to 4.84 ± 0.22 mmol/L (P < 0.001) after 30 days][61]
ArecaceaeHyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart.Dum/karurAqueous suspension of the pulp1 g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant reduction on blood glucose levels in STZ rats (P < 0.05)[62]
ArecaceaePhoenix dactylifera L.TmarEthanolic extract of the leaves100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsA significant antidiabetic effect at 400 mg/kg was observed starting from the 6th day onwards (P < 0.05), and from 10th days onwards for 200 mg/kg[63]
BrassicaceaeAnastatica hierochuntica L.Chajarat Maryem/lkemchaWater extract of the aerial parts12.5 mg/ratStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The administration of the plant extract induced a hypoglycemic effect in both normoglycemic and diabetic rats. It also caused significant improvement in tissue injury induced by STZ[64]
BrassicaceaeBrassica napus L.LeftHydro-alcoholic extract16 ml/ kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificantly decrease of blood glucose compared to diabetic control rats (P < 0.05)[65]
BrassicaceaeBrassica nigra (L.) K.KochElkhardelChloroform, acetone, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the seeds200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The dministration of aqueous extract daily once for 1 month brought down fasting serum glucose levels[66]
BrassicaceaeBrassica oleracea L.Krunb mkawar/melfufDifferent fractions (Petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of ethanolic extract of the leaves150 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificant reduction on blood glucose levels (P < 0.05)[67]
BrassicaceaeBrassica rapa L.Left beldiAqueous extract of the leaves200 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsBoth doses significantly decreased (p < 0.001) blood glucose levels in diabetic rats after 28 days of administration[68]
BrassicaceaeLepidium sativum L.Hab errechadSeed powder3 g / kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificant decrease (p ≤ 0.05) in fasting blood glucose levels[69]
BrassicaceaeNasturtium officinale R.Br.GernunesHydroalcoholic extract of the leaves100 and 200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Treatment of diabetic rats for 4 weeks with Nasturtium officinale extract significantly decreased their serum glucose levels[70]
BrassicaceaeRaphanus sativus L.LfjelRoot juice100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Maximum reduction of 15.9% (p < 0.001) in blood glucose level at 3 h in normal rats, whereas the reduction observed was by 23.8 and 28.3% (p < 0.001) in sub- and mild-diabetic rats, respectively[71]
BuxaceaeBuxus sempervirens L.LbeksAqueous extract of the leaves5 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The aqueous extract reduced the blood glucose of both healthy and diabetic rats. This extract was also able to improve oral glucose tolerance in diabetic rats and it ameliorated hepatic histology[72]
CactaceaeOpuntia ficus indica (L.) Mill.Lhndia/AknariWater extract of the whole plant100 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significantly decrease of blood glucose compared to diabetic control rats (P < 0.05)[73]
CapparaceaeCapparis decidua (Forssk.) Edgew.IgninAqueous and ethanolic extract of the stem250 and 500 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe fasting blood glucose level decreases by 58.5, 83.6% (aqueous extract) and 60.2, 98.51 (ethanolic extract) after 21st day in diabetic rats treated with a different doses of 250 mg and 500 mg/kg BW respectively[74]
CapparaceaeCapparis spinosa L.Kabar /TaylulutHydroalcoholic extract of the root0.2 and 0.4 g/ kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Glucose levels significantly decreased after treating with plant extract (p = 0.003)[75]
CistaceaeCistus laurifolius L.AgullidAqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves250 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The blood glucose levels of the STZ-induced diabetic rats were decreased by ethanol extract as compared to control group (16%–34%)[76]
CompositaeAnacyclus pyrethrum (L.) Lag.Iguntas /TagundechtAqueous extract of the roots150 and 300 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe significant reduction (p < 0.01) of blood glucose was observed at 60 and 120 min of the experiment[77]
CompositaeArtemisia absinthium L.ChibaEthanol extract of the whole plant250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsA time-dependent significant hypoglycemic activity in medium dose (500 mg/kg BW, P < 0.01) and high dose (1000 mg/kg BW, P < 0.001), which was clearly after day 10 treatment period[78]
CompositaeArtemisia herba-alba AssoIzri/Chih dwidiAqueous extract of the aerial parts0.39 g/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe administration of Artemisia herba-alba indicates significant (P < 0.05) reduction of blood glucose concentration and was found to be antidiabetic[79]
CompositaeChamaemelum nobile (L.) All.BabounjAqueous extract of the aerial parts20 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The blood glucose levels were decreased from 6.1 ± 0.06 mmol/l to 4.6 ± 0.17 mmol/l (P < 0.01) and from 21.1 ± 1.31 mmol/l to 13.7 ± 0.90 mmol/l (P < 0.01) in normal and STZ diabetic rats, respectively, after 15 days of treatment.[80]
CompositaeCichorium intybus L.BuaggadEthanolic extract of the whole plant125 mg / kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The daily administration for 14 days to diabetic rats attenuated serum glucose by 20%, triglycerides by 91% and total cholesterol by 16%[81]
CompositaeLactuca sativa L.KhesLactucaxanthin isolated from Lactuca sativa6.854 μgα-Amylase and α-glucosidase assays using streptozotocin -induced diabetic rat modelsLactucaxanthin significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) the activity of α-amylase and α-glucosidase[82]
CompositaeMatricaria chamomilla L.MansaniaAqueous extract of the leaves200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The administration of Matricaria chamomilla once daily for 21 days reduced the elevated Fasted Blood Glucose by 62.2% (p < 0.001)[83]
CompositaeTaraxacum campylodes G.E.HaglundLhandbaAqueous extract and methanol extract of roots, flowers and stems20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 μg/mlα-glucosidase and α-amylase enzyme inhibiting activityThe stem showed the highest overall inhibitory effect of both (alpha amylase + alpha glucosidase) as an average of about 87.2%[84]
CompositaeWarionia saharae Benthem ex Benth. & Coss.AfssasAqueous extract of the aerial parts5 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The blood glucose levels were decreased in normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats after 15 days of treatment[85]
CucurbitaceaeCitrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad.Aferziz/lhdejChloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the root200 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsAqueous extract showed significant reduction in blood sugar level (58.70%) when compared with chloroform (34.72%) and ethanol extracts (36.60%) (p < 0.01)[86]
CucurbitaceaeCucumis sativus L.LkhiarEthanol extract of the fruit200 and 400 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The hyperglycemia was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered by the administration of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body weight ethanol extract[87]
CucurbitaceaeCucurbita maxima DuchesneGaraa lhamraPetroleum ether, ethyl acetate and alcohol extract of the seeds200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The blood glucose concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) decreased compared to control[88]
CucurbitaceaeCucurbita pepo L.Takhsait/curjtFruit powder2 g/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificantly decrease of blood glucose compared to diabetic control rats (P < 0.05)[89]
CupressaceaeJuniperus phoenicea L.Araar finiquiEssential oil, hexane and methanol extracts of the leaves50, 100 and 200 μg/mLα-Amylase inhibition assayThe IC50 values of essential oil, hexane and methanol extracts against α-amylase were 35.44, 30.15 and 53.76 μg/mL respectively, and those against pancreatic lipase were 66.15, 68.47 and 60.22 μg/mL respectively[90]
CyperaceaeCyperus rotundus L.TaraHydro-ethanolic extract of the tubers200 and 500 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThis hyperglycemia was significantly (P < 0.05) lowered by the administration of Hydro-ethanolic extract[91]
EricaceaeArbutus unedo L.SasnuWater extract of the roots500 mg/kg BWOral glucose tolerance test in rats (OGTT)The water extract produced a decrease of glycemia at 1 h and 3 h after glucose loading (21.1%, p < 0.05 and 14.1%, p < 0.05, respectively)[92]
EuphorbiaceaeRicinus communis L.Awriwer/LkharwaaEthanolic extract of the root125, 250, 500, 750, 1000 and 2000 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsFive-hundred milligram per kilogram body weight appeared to be the effective dose as it caused the maximum lowering of the fasting blood glucose[93]
LeguminosaeVigna radiata (L.) R.WilczekSojaRaw, boiled, and sprouted mung beansNot mentionedα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities were higher (p < 0.05) in sprouted mung compared to raw mung and boiled mung.[94]
LeguminosaeVigna unguiculata (L.) WalpFul gnawaSeed oil100 and 200 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificant reduction in blood glucose level was noted and at the dose of 200 mg/kg.b.wt serum glucose level was found to be very close to the non-diabetic control[95]
GentianaceaeCentaurium erythraea RafnQusset elhayya / Ahchlaf ntawrraAqueous and butanolic extracts of the aerial parts0,015 ml / 100 g and 0,66 ml / 100 g BWOral glucose tolerance test overload “OGTT”The administration of extracts has reduced significantly glycemia compared to controls at t60, t90, t120 and t180 min[96]
IridaceaeCrocus sativus L.Zaafran lhorEthanolic Extract of stigma20, 40 and 80 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe dose of 40 mg/kg was found to be more effective dose in intraperitoneally route for decreasing blood glucose level[97]
JuglandaceaeJuglans regia L.Swak / GargaaAlcoholic extract of the leaves200 and 400 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The extract reduced the hyperglycemia significantly compared to control group (P < 0.05)[98]
LamiaceaeAjuga iva (L.) Schreb.Timerna nzenkhad/ ChndkouraLyophilised aqueous extract of the whole plant10 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant reduction in blood glucose level in normal rats as compared to the untreated groups and to the pre-treatment levels (0 h) (793.96 mg/dl at 6 h vs 100.73.34 mg/dl at 0 h, P < 0.01)[99]
LamiaceaeLavandula angustifolia MillElkhzama zerqa/ Elkhzama FassiyaMethanolic extract of the whole plant12.5–400 μg/mlInhibitory effects on both hormone sensitive lipase (HSL) and pancreatic lipase (PL)The extract inhibited HSL activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 of 175.5 μg/ml. Likewise, it inhibited the PL activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 of 56.5 μg/ml[100]
LamiaceaeLavandula stoechas L.Imzeria/Tikenkert/LhalhalEssential oil extracted from the aerial parts50 mg / kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsLavandula stoechas essential oils significantly protected against the increase of blood glucose[101]
LamiaceaeMarrubium vulgare L.Mriwt/IfziMethanolic extract of the aerial parts500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)a highly significant reduction in the plasma glucose level starting at the 14th day of treatment, compared to before treatment (day 0)[102]
LamiaceaeOcimum basilicum L.LahbaqAqueous extract of the leaves20, 18.2, 16.3 and 14.5 mg/mlα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeThe aqueous extract showed strong a-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibiting activities[103]
LamiaceaeRosmarinus officinalis L.AzirEthanolic extract of the leaves50, 100 and 200 mg/kg BWAlloxan-diabetic rabbitsThe highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration in alloxan-diabetic rabbits[104]
LamiaceaeSalvia officinalis L.SalmiaEthanolic extract of the leaves0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The effect of administration of extract and glibenclamide tended to bring serum glucose and insulin towards normal values[105]
LamiaceaeTeucrium polium L.Tawerart/Flyou lbour/jaaidiaAqueous decoction of the aerial parts5 ml (20% w/v)Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)significant reductions in blood glucose concentration 4 h after intravenous administration and 24 h after intraperitoneal administration[106]
LamiaceaeThymus satureioides Coss.Asserkna/ ZiitraAqueous extract of the aerial parts500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Administration of aqueous extract to diabetic rats for 28 d reduced their fasting blood glucose levels significantly compared to the diabetic control rats[107]
LamiaceaeThymus vulgaris L.Aduchen /Azukni / ZaitraMethanol, ethanol and aqueous extract of the whole plant2, 4, 8, 10, 15 μg/mlα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeThe results of anti-diabetic activity produced by Thymus vulgaris showed that the volatile compounds were effective to α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition.[108]
LauraceaeCinnamomum cassia (L.) J.PreslQarfaAqueous extract of the bark60 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsA highly significant (P < 0.001) decrease in mean fasting blood glucose level, 203.5 ± 13.47 on 10th and 191.5 ± 12.72 on15th day as compared to mean fasting blood glucose level[109]
LauraceaeCinnamomum verum J.PreslDar essiniAqueous extract of the bark200, 400, 600 and 1200 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsAfter 30 days, the administration of diabetic rats with the lowest dose (200 mg/kg BW) of extracts was the most efficient in affecting significant (P < 0.05) reduction in the levels of fasting blood glucose[110]
LauraceaeLaurus nobilis L.Ourak sidna moussa/ RandEssential oil and its three main components0.606 to 1.300 μl/mLα-glucosidase inhibition enzymeEssential oil was found to inhibit α-glucosidase over 90%. The IC50-value of the oil was determined to be 1.748 ± 0.021 μL/mL[111]
LauraceaePersea americana Mill.LavocaAqueous extract of the seeds20, 30, 40 g/lAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe extract possessed a significant hypoglycaemic (P < 0.05) in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, comparable to the effect glibenclamide[112]
LeguminosaeAcacia nilotica (L.) DelileAmur/SllahaAqueous methanolic extract of pods200, 300 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan-induced diabetic rabbitsA dose of 400 mg/kg BW maximally reduced the blood glucose levels as compared to the diabetic group (p < 0.001).[113]
LeguminosaeAcacia senegal (L.) Willd.LaalekEthyl acetate extract of stem bark200 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsIn diabetic rats, both the doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) of ethyl acetate extract were found to be significantly (P < 0.05) active in comparison to control[114]
LeguminosaeAcacia tortilis (Forssk.) HayneTelh/TadouteAqueous extract of the leaves800 mg/kg BWDiagnostic kits Spectrophotometrically in ratsThe administration of aqueous extract for seven consecutive days caused significant (P < 0.05) decrease in blood glucose[115]
LeguminosaeArachis hypogaea L.Lgerta/KawkawAqueous extract of the seeds2 mlAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe extract caused a significant (P < 0.05) decrease of fasting blood glucose of both normal and alloxan-induced diabetic rats[116]
LeguminosaeFaidherbia albida (Delile) A.Chev.Chok/Talh/MimouzaAqueous extract of stem bark125, 250 and 500 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe queous extract possessed anti-hyperglycemic effect in alloxan induced diabetic rats[117]
LeguminosaeGlycine max (L.) Merr.SojaPetroleum ether, alcoholic and aqueous extract of seeds100, 200 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe antihyperglycemic effect of aqueous extract showed onset at the 2nd h; peak effect at the 4th h and the antihyperglycemic effect was sustained till the 24th h[118]
LeguminosaeLupinus albus L.Tirms/Foul gnawaAqueous extract of seed coat18.4 and 36.8 mg/kg BWGlucose Resistant MiceDecrease in blood glucose at 30 min relative to control, but this difference was not significant for either concentration[119]
LeguminosaeMedicago sativa L.FassaAqueous extract of seeds7 mg/100 g BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe aqueous extract has hypoglycemic effect by increasing insulin level and decreasing insulin resistance[120]
LeguminosaePhaseolus vulgaris L.LubyaSeeds100, 200 and 300 mg/kg BWInduction of hyperglycemia in rats by administration of glucoseSeeds of P. vulgaris at a dosage of 300 g/kg bw is showing maximal blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats after third hour[121]
LeguminosaeRetama raetam (Forssk.) WebbRtam/AllugMethanolic extract of the fruits100, 250 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The extracts at 250 or 500 mg/kg significantly lowered blood glucose levels at the 3rd and 1st week of treatment, respectively[63]
LeguminosaeTrigonella foenum-graecum L.Lhelba/TifidasAlcoholic extract of the seeds1, 2 and 4 gAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificant reduction on blood glucose levels was seen with alcoholic extract (74.33 ± 4.77 to 60.56 ± 1.9 in normal rats and 201.25 ± 7.69 to 121.25 ± 6.25 in diabetic rats) (P < 0.001)[122]
LinaceaeLinum usitatissimum L.Zariat elkattanEthanolic extract of the seeds200 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe extract significantly reduced serum glucose level. The antihyperglycaemic effects showed onset at 4th h (P < 0.001) and peak effect at 6th h (P < 0.001)[123]
LythraceaeLawsonia inermis L.LhennaEthanolic extract of the whole plant150, 300 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significantly decreased level of blood glucose. The effect of dose o 500 mg/kg BW was found to be better then 150 and 300 mg/kg BW[124]
LythraceaePunica granatum L.RmanEthanolic extract of the leaves500 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificant decrease (P < 0.01) in blood glucose level in comparison to control group[125]
MalvaceaeAbelmoschus esculentus (L.) MoenchLmloukhiaPeel and seed powder100 and 200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant (P < 0.001) reduction in blood glucose level and increase in body weight than diabetic control rats[126]
MalvaceaeHibiscus sabdariffa L.Karkadi/BissamAqueous extracts of the calyces10–80 μg/mLα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeThe extracts caused inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities in vitro[127]
MoraceaeFicus carica L.Tazart/Lkarmous/Karma/chriha/ElbakurAqueous extract of the leaves2.5 g/100 mlStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The extract decreased (p < 0,025) plasma glucose in diabetic (27.9 ± 4.5 mmol/L to 19.6 ± 9.9 mmol/L) while not in normal rats[128]
MoraceaeMorus alba L.Tut lbariAlcohol extract of the root bark200, 400 and 600 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)A significant decline in serum glucose level to a value of 155 mg/dl, P < 0.05 as compared to STZ-diabetic rats[129]
MusaceaeMusa × paradisiaca L.BananEthanolic extracts of leaves, fruit peels, stems and roots100, 250 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Only leaves and ripe fruit peels showed promising antidiabetic effect[130]
MyristicaceaeMyristica fragrans Houtt.LgouzaPetroleum ether extract of the seeds100 and 200 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)A significant decrease in blood glucose level from 56.5 ± 3.19 (0 h) to 49.75 ± 2.05 mg% (4 h) in normoglycaemic rats[131]
MyrtaceaeEucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.CalitusEssential oil extracted from the leaves0.10 and 0.25 mlα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeBoth α-amylase and α-glucosidase were inhibited by a non-competitive mechanism[132]
MyrtaceaeEucalyptus globulus Labill.CalitusAqueous extract of the leaves150 and 300 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The aqueous extract exhibited a significant and dose-dependent effect on the blood glucose levels (P < 0.001). The highest dose (300 mg/kg) produced the most pronounced lowering of blood glucose levels[133]
MyrtaceaeMyrtus communis L.RihaneHydroalcoholic, water, and ethanol extracts of the leaves2 and g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The ethanolic extract of leaves (2 g/kg) had a better hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rats compared with the aqueous extract (p < 0.05)[134]
MyrtaceaeSyzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M.PerryKranfalEssential oil extracted from the buds and seeds1 to 100 μg/mLα-amylase inhibition enzymeThe maximum antidiabetic activity for S. aromaticum essential oils was noted at the highest dose (100 μg/mL).[135]
NitrariaceaePeganum harmala L.LharmelEthanolic extract of the seeds150 and 250 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The oral administration of ethanolic extract causes maximum fall of blood glucose level to 22.9% (p < 0.05) and 29.4% (p < 0.01) respectively with the two doses in normal and 30.3% (p < 0.01) and 48.4% (p < 0.001) in diabetic rats[11]
OleaceaeFraxinus angustifolia VahlTouzaltHydroalcoholic extracts of leaves and bark25 and 50 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)A considerable hypoglycemic effect was noticed 2 h after the STZ-induction, with a higher efficiency (P < 0.05) for leaf extract (68%) as compared with bark extract (57%)[136]
OleaceaeOlea europaea L.Jbouj/Azmour/ZitounAlcohol extract of the leaves0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The antidiabetic effect of the extract was more effective than that observed with glibenclamide[137]
PedaliaceaeSesamum indicum L.JanjlanEthanolic extract of the seeds500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)A significant decrease in the elevated blood glucose and increase in the lowered insulin and glycogen levels[138]
PlantaginaceaeGlobularia alypum L.Ayen lerneb/ TaselghaAqueous extract of the leaves100 and 20 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)In the diabetic rats, the blood glucose levels was mostly reduced, due to repeated oral treatment of G.alypum leaves (20 mg/kg (P < 0.001)[139]
PoaceaeCynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.NjemAqueous extract of the whole plant250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The dose of 500 mg/kg was identified as the most effective dose. It lowers blood glucose level around 31% after 4 h of administration in normal rats[140]
PoaceaeHordeum vulgare L.Chair/ZraaHydroalcoholic extract of the seeds0.1, 0.25, 0.5 g/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The extract at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, were only effective in detracting blood glucose levels of diabetic rats after 11 days of continued daily therapy[141]
PoaceaePennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br.IllanHexane, ethylacetate, methanolic and aqueous extracts of the seeds250 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The aqueous extract has shown maximal blood glucose lowering effect in diabetic rats[142]
PoaceaePhalaris canariensis L.ZouanEncrypted peptides released after gastrointestinal digestion of seed proteins0, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 μg/mLAssay for Inhibitory Activity of Dipeptidyl Peptidase IVThe peptides showed 43.5% inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV[143]
PoaceaeSorghum bicolor (L.) MoenchBachnaDried extract of the whole plant0.4 g/kg BWHepatic gluconeogenesis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic ratsThe hypoglycemic effect of extract was related to hepatic gluconeogenesis but not the glucose uptake of skeletal muscle, and the effect was similar to that of anti-diabetic medication[144]
PoaceaeZea mays L.Lahyat AdraCorn silk aqueous extract0.25–10.0 mg/mL 0.25–8.0 mg/mLα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeIn vitro analysis of the extract showed that it exhibited potent and moderate inhibitory potential against α-amylase and α-glucosidase, respectively. The inhibition was concentration-dependent with respective half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 5.89 and 0.93 mg/mL[145]
PortulacaceaePortulaca oleracea L.RejlaAqueous extract of the whole plant200 and 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe hypoglycaemic effect of extract became significant following oral administration 1 h, reached the peak at 1.5 h (p < 0.01), and was still significant at 4 h[6]
RanunculaceaeNigella sativa L.Haba souda /SanoujHydroalcholic extract of the seeds5, 10, and 20 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)5 mg/kg BW is the most effective dose for assessing the anti-hyperglycemic potential of hydroalcholic extract of N. sativa in diabetic rats[146]
RhamnaceaeZiziphus lotus (L.) Lam.Nbeg/Azouggar/ssdraAqueous extract of leaves and fruits250 μL 150 μLα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeZ. lotus leaves and fruits, demonstrated inhibitory effects against α-amylase (IC50: 20.40–31.91 μg/mL), and α-glucosidase (IC50: 8.66–27.95 μg/mL)[147]
RosaceaeCydonia oblonga Mill.SferjelAqueous extract of the fruits80, 160, and 240 mg/kgStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The oral administration of the extract prevented diabetes-induced increase in serum urea and creatinine levels as the markers of renal dysfunction[148]
RosaceaeChaenomeles sinensis (Dum.Cours.) KoehneSferjelEthyl acetate fraction from the fruits50 and 100 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The administration of C. sinensis fruits extract (100 mg/kg BW) restored the blood glucose to almost normal level[149]
RosaceaeEriobotrya japonica (Thunb.) Lindl.MzahAlcoholic extract of the leaves100, 150 and 200 mg/kgAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe extract exerted a significant (P < 0.05) hypoglycaemic effect in normal rabbits which was however short-lived. The hypoglycaemic effect was not significant (P > 0.1) in alloxan-treated rabbits[150]
RosaceaePrunus armeniaca L.Luz elharThe pomace and the detoxified kernel extract4, 6 and 8 mg/kg 2, 3 and 4 mg/kgAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsPomace extract showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) antidiabetic-activity more prominent thandetoxified kernel extract acutely, subchronically and on longer-terms[151]
RosaceaePrunus dulcis (Mill.) D.A. WebbLouz imrzig/ Louz morrEthanol extract, ethyl acetate fraction, hexane fraction, chloroform fraction, n-butanol fraction, water fraction and almond oilNot mentionedProtein tyrosine phosphatase-1B (PTP1B) inhibitionThe alcoholic extract showed strong anti-diabetic (PTP1B inhibition) activity with an IC50 0.46 μg/mL[152]
RutaceaeCitrus medica LLhamed beldîPetroleum ether extract of the. Seeds200 and 400 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant reduction (p < 0.05) of fasting blood glucose in dose dependent manner after 15 days of drug administration[153]
RutaceaeCitrus paradisi Macfad.PamblamusPhenolic extract from grapefruit peels500 mL
50 mL
50 mL
Interaction with α-amylase, α-glucosidase and angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE)The phenolic extracts inhibited α-amylase, α-glucosidase and ACE enzyme activities[154]
RutaceaeCitrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Peel ethanolic extract250 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Diabetic rats treated with 250 and 500 mg/kg of extract showed a significant reduction in blood glucose levels of 11 and 25%, respectively[155]
RutaceaeCitrus × aurantium LLarenj/Zenbue/trunjThe alcoholic extract of fruit peel300 and 500 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsOn repeated administration of ethanolic extract for 21 days, a significant (P < 0.001) dose-dependent decrease in blood glucose of the diabetic rats was seen as compared to control group[156]
RutaceaeRuta graveolens L.LfijelWater extract of the whole plant125 and 50 mg/kg BWNicotinamide-streptozotocin-induced (type 2) diabetic albino ratsSignificant amelioration of glucose tolerance[157]
RutaceaeRuta montana (L.) L.LFijel /IwermiAqueous extract of the aerial parts5 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Both single and repeated oral doses produced significant reductions in the blood glucose levels in normal and STZ-induced rats[158]
SantalaceaeViscum album LLenjbarAqueous extract of the leaves100 and 200 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic animalsDoses of 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg BW produced significant (p < 0.05) lowering of blood sugar in fasted normal white albino rats and alloxanized rabbits respectively[159]
SapotaceaeArgania spinosa (L.) SkeelsArganAqueous extract of the fruits10 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Single oral administration reduced blood glucose levels 6 h after administration in STZ diabetic rats. Furthermore, blood glucose levels were decreased in STZ diabetic rats after 7 days of treatment[160]
SolanaceaeCapsicum annuum L.Felfel Hârr/ soudaniaWater extract of nine types of pepper500 mL
50 mL
α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeSeveral pepper extracts had high a-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Select extracts such as Green pepper and Long hot pepper had less or no inhibitory effect on the a-amylase activity[161]
SolanaceaeDatura stramonium L. Aqueous extract of the leaves100–1000 μlα-amylase inhibition enzymeThe assay carried out on alpha-amylase enzyme showed the dose-dependent increase in inhibitory effect with IC50 730 μg[162]
SolanaceaeLycopersicon esculentum Mill.Sdag jmel/MetalThe supernatant (juice fraction)0 to 0.8 mg/mlα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeStronger inhibition of α-glucosidase than α-amylase activity[163]
SolanaceaeNicotiana tabacum L.NefhaAcetone, ethanol and water extract of the leaves250 μLα-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition enzymeThe aqueous extract was most effective inhibitor of α-amylase (IC50 5.7 mg/mL) while acetone extract exhibited the best inhibitory potential on α-glucosidase (IC50 4.5 mg/mL)[164]
SolanaceaeSolanum americanum Mill.Aneb dibAqueous extract of the leaves200, 400 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsSignificant antihyperglycemic and hypolipidemic effects when compared to diabetic control rats (p < 0.0001)[165]
TheaceaeCamellia sinensis (L.) KuntzeAttayWater extract2 ml/100 g BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The inhibitory effect of extract on hyperglycemia induced by STZ was statistically significant[166]
ThymelaeaceaeThymelaea hirsuta (L.) Endl.MetnanAqueous extract of the aerial parts250 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)In STZ-induced diabetic rats, single oral administration of T. hirsuta produced a significant decrease of blood glucose levels[167]
UrticaceaeUrtica dioica L.Taznagt/Tigzenin/LhrigaAqueous extract of the aerial parts500 mg/kg BWAlloxan- induced diabetic ratsThe amount of glucose absorbed in a segment jejunum in situ was 8.05 ± 0.68 mg in presence of nettle extract vs. 11.11 ± 0.75 mg in control rats during 2 h (P < 0.05)[168]
UrticaceaeUrtica pilulifera L.Hurriga / TisrakmazLectin isolated from the seeds100 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Significant hypoglycemic effect was found at the dose of 100 mg/kg after administration for 30 days[169]
VitaceaeVitis vinifera L.Dalya/Zbib/Kerma/AdiliteEthanolic extract of the leaves250 and 500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)The data show that 250 mg/kg of the V.vinifera extract has possessed remarkable effect on blood glucose level as equal as reference drug. (11.8–26.0%)[170]
ZingiberaceaeZingiber officinale RoscoeSekinjbirAqueous extract of the root500 mg/kg BWStreptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ)Raw ginger was significantly effective in lowering serum glucose, cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels in the ginger-treated diabetic rats compared with the control diabetic rats[171]