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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 1 Case reports included

From: Overview on pharmacovigilance of nephrotoxic herbal medicines used worldwide

Herb Country Gender Age (yeas) Reason Preparation Renal side effect Causality Reference
Dioscorea quinqueloba Korea male 52 cardiovascular disease Raw extract biopsy-proven acute interstitial nephritis Certain 2014, [14]
Dioscorea quinqueloba Korea male 51 for his own health dug up tubers of D. quinqueloba and drank about 400 mL of juice made from the raw tubers acute kidney injury Probable 2015, [15]
Dioscorea quinqueloba Korea male 68–58 Diabetes mellitus and health tonics extract from tubers acute kidney injury Possible 2011, [16]
Cape aloes Soweto, South Africa male 47 to clean his stomach Taken the remedy by mouth at least three times during the month before admission, with the last dose about 10 days before admission. acute oliguric renal failure and liver dysfunction Certain 2002, [17]
Glycyrrhiza glabra Serbia female 39 sterility ingestion of 50–100 g herbal products which contained licorice, every day for 8 weeks Acute Renal Failure Probable 2010, [18]
Unknown herbal vaginal pessary Nigeria female 22 To terminate an unwanted pregnancy insertion of a locally prepared herb (semi-solid) into her genital tract oliguric acute kidney injury Probable 2017, [19]
Chenopodium polyspermum Anatolia region, Turkey male 45 to regulate his blood glucose levels   chronic renal failure Possible 2012, [20]
Nigella sativa Turkey female 62 antioxidant or antidiabetic effects N. sativa tablets for 6 d at approximately 2000 to 2500 mg/d. acute renal failure Possible 2013, [21]
Tribulus terrestris
Avena sativa
Panax ginseng
Zingiber officinale
Turkey female 50 cardio-protective 4 different combination
herbal medicinal products twice a day for 2 weeks
Acute kidney injury Possible 2014, [22]
African mango (Irvingia gabonensis) Turkey female 42 slimming purposes Three months previously she started using 2 × 500 mg
African mango
rapid renal progression Probable 2015, [23]
Lawsonia inermis Myanmar male 34 swelling of his face and unhealthy appearance of
his skin.
boiled henna leaves, of which he drank about 700 mL/ day for 3 days acute kidney injury Probable 2017, [24]
Lawsonia inermis L. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia male 32 chronic bloating and constipation ingestion of large
amounts of boiled henna
acute renal failure Probable 2013, [25]
Artemisia herba-alba Tunisia (North Africa) male 59 antidiabetic agent aqueous
extract (two cups a day for two consecutive days)
acute tubular necrosis Possible 2010, [26]
Euphorbia paralias Tunisia male 29 edema one time ingestion of boiled plant of Euphorbia paralias ten days before acute renal failure Possible 2013, [27]
Cassia senna L. Belgium female 52 constipation had ingested, for > 3 years, one liter of an herbal tea each day made from a bag containing 70 g of dry senna fruits acute hepatic failure and renal impairment Possible 2005, [28]
ayurvedic powder India male 33 eczematous skin lesions Ingesttion of ayurvedic contained arsenic for last 6 months acute kidney injury Possible 2011, [29]
ayurvedic medication India female 44 to reduce the side effects of chemotherapy Contained high levels of several heavy metals including those of mercury, lead, and manganese acute renal failure Possible 2015, [30]
ayurvedic supplement India male 24 fever and abdominal pain Ingestion of Alternative Medicine Containing Lead acute kidney injury Possible 2019, [31]
Carica papaya India male 62 increase the platelet count juice extracted from
papaya leaves
acute kidney injury Possible 2019, [32]
Tribulus terrestris Iran male 28 to prevent kidney stone formation 2 L of T. terrestris water in two consecutive days nephrotoxicity Probable 2010, [33]
chine male 41 urinary tract
4 boxes (each containing 40 small packets) of an herbal preparation called “Fen Qing Wu Lin Wan”. That was taken twice daily for twenty consecutive days. died in renal failure Certain 2010, [34]
Trigonella foenum-graecum Iran female 62   daily ingestion of heat extract of fenugreek acute interstitial nephritis Possible 2017, [35]
Crataegus orientalis Turkey male 68   eating ½ kg of raw and drinking five cups of tea made from leaves 3 days before Acute renal failure Possible 2008, [36]
Tripterygium wilfordii HookF Southwest china male 36.6   ingesting approximately 50 g of wild honey 3 patients were at different degrees of renal damage, and 1 patient with severe symptoms died of acute renal failure 1 day after admission Not excluded 2016, [37]
Colchicum autumnale Croatia male 62   ate a salad of plant with green leaves regarded as wild garlic nephrotoxic acute tubular necrosis Possible 2004, [38]
Rheum rhaponticum Germany female 52   increased ingestion of approximately 500 mg
of rhubarb (fresh weight) per day in the last 4 weeks
acute renal failure Possible 2012, [39]
Pithecellobium jeringa Malaysia male 45    acute renal failure Not excluded 2007, [40]