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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 3 In vivo anti-diabetic activity of medicinal plat in Ethiopia

From: Efficacy, safety and phytochemistry of medicinal plants used for the management of diabetes mellitus in Ethiopia: a systematic review

Study Plant Animal type Extraction method/ component Duration of treatment From diabetic
Control
From standard control
Amare et al., 2020 [35] Terminalia brownii Fresen Normoglycemic Mice Methanol E 14 Days 200 mg/kg = 16.74 ± 2.57
400 mg/kg = 6.9 ± 2.33
600 mg/kg = 5.36 ± 2.20
Mice Loaded with Oral Glucose   200 mg/kg = 16.30 ± 1.11
400 mg/kg = 7.14 ± 0.46
600 mg/kg = 3.25 ± 0.96
STZ -induced Mice   200 mg/kg = − 22.48 ± 4.66
400 mg/kg = − 26.6 ± 5.89
600 mg/kg = − 29.54 ± 4.29
200 mg/kg = 7.94 ± 2.72
400 mg/kg = 3.82 ± 4.51
600 mg/kg = 0.88 ± 2.02
Alema et al., 2020 [10] Terminalia brownii Fresen Normoglycemic Mice Methanolic E. 15 days 250 mg/kg = − 43.5 ± 6.21500 mg/kg = − 41 ± 7.12
750 mg/kg = − 32.5 ± 9.37
Mice Loaded with Oral Glucose Methanolic E. 250 mg/kg = − 40 ± 7.3
500 mg/kg = − 46.5 ± 7.67
750 mg/kg = − 44.67 ± 8.38
STZ -induced Mice Methanolic E. 250 mg/kg = 151.5 ± 59.14
500 mg/kg = 196.5 ± 61.86
750 mg/kg = 264.33 ± 53.5
250 mg/kg = −  123.67 ± 43.02
500 mg/kg = − 78.67 ± 46.61
750 mg/kg = − 11. 5 ± 34.84
aqueous F. 500 mg/kg = 324.84 ± 40.14 500 mg/kg = − 11.16 ± 30.22
Ethyl acetate F. 500 mg/kg = 278.5 ± 51.65 500 mg/kg = − 57.5 ± 37.85
Butanol F. 500 mg/kg = 68.67 ± 62.71 500 mg/kg = − 267.33 ± 51.93
Belayneh et al., 2018 [22] Calpurnia aurea Normoglycemic Mice Loaded with Oral Glucose Methanol E 14 Days 100 mg/kg = 4.06 ± 8.88
200 mg/kg = 11.73 ± 9.38
400 mg/kg = 0.67 ± 10.36
100 mg/kg = − 26.33 ± 4.56
200 mg/kg = − 18.66 ± 5.47
400 mg/kg = − 29.72 ± 7.03
100 mg/kg = 28.12 ± 14.9
200 mg/kg = 18.95 ± 14.5
400 mg/kg = 30.51 ± 13.93
100 mg/kg = − 22.55 ± 11.04
200 mg/kg = − 31.72 ± 10.47
400 mg/kg = − 20.16 ± 9.55
STZ -induced Mice 100 mg/kg = 144.94 ± 52.94
200 mg/kg = 153.11 ± 60.64
400 mg/kg = 134.89 ± 23.25
100 mg/kg = − 98.95 ± 50.04
200 mg/kg = − 90.78 ± 58.12
400 mg/kg = − 109 ± 58.48
Belaynehet al., 2019 [12] Datura stramonium L. Normoglycemic mice Ethanol E 14 days 100 mg/kg = 16.72 ± 7.87
200 mg/kg = 20.11 ± 5.76
400 mg/kg = 15.39 ± 5.30
100 mg/kg = − 23.39 ± 8.10
200 mg/kg = − 20 ± 6.08
400 mg/kg = − 24.72 ± 5.66
Diabetic mice 100 mg/kg = 38.12 ± 11.30
200 mg/kg = 38.62 ± 11.25
400 mg/kg = 42.89 ± 11.35
100 mg/kg = − 23 .71 ± 2.75
200 mg/kg = − 23.27 ± 2.51
400 mg/kg = − 19 ± 5.30
Birru et al., 2015 [21] Indigofera spicata Forssk Normoglycemic rat Methanol E 10 h 100 mg/kg = − 6.66 ± 7.67
200 mg/kg = 10.48 ± 7.11
400 mg/kg = − 2.5 ± 6.45
100 mg/kg = − 17 ± 6.85
200 mg/kg = 0.5 ± 6.22
400 mg/kg = − 12.48 ± 5.51
Normoglycemic rat Loaded with Oral Glucose 100 mg/kg = 3.17 ± 10.08
200 mg/kg = 5.5 ± 8.17
400 mg/kg = 10.17 ± 6.73
100 mg/kg = − 26.67 ± 10.22
200 mg/kg = − 24.83 ± 8.33
400 mg/kg = − 20.17 ± 6.93
   alloxan induced mice    100 mg/kg = 179.67 ± 30.71
200 mg/kg = 196 ± 26.86
400 mg/kg = 196.67 ± 24.73
100 mg/kg = − 30.33 ± 23.22
200 mg/kg = − 14 ± 17.80
400 mg/kg = − 13.33 ± 14.41
Hammeso, et al., 2019 [14] Aloe megalacantha B. Normoglycemic mice Aqueous E 14 days 100 mg/kg = 55.53 ± 12.65
200 mg/kg = 55.66 ± 13.98
400 mg/kg = 57.61 ± 13.32
100 mg/kg = − 20.16 ± 8.18
200 mg/kg = − 20 ± 10.13
400 mg/kg = − 18.05 ± 9.19
Postprandial Normoglycemic mice 100 mg/kg = 32.05 ± 8.49
200 mg/kg = 39.83 ± 5.60
400 mg/kg = 30.83 ± 5.54
100 mg/kg = − 8.11 ± 8.07
200 mg/kg = − 0.33 ± 4.94
400 mg/kg = − 9.33 ± 4.87
STZ-induced diabetic mice 100 mg/kg = 65 ± 5.57
200 mg/kg = 64.83 ± 5.42
400 mg/kg = 66.83 ± 5.39
100 mg/kg = − 12.16 ± 2.83
200 mg/kg = − 12.33 ± 2.52
400 mg/kg = − 10.33 ± 2.46
Kifle and Eneyew., 2020 [34] Bersama abyssinica Fresen Normoglycemic Mice Methanolic E. 8 h   100 mg/kg = 25.67 ± 3.07
200 mg/kg = 14.17 ± 2.39
400 mg/kg = 8.83 ± 3.43
Mice Loaded with Oral Glucose   100 mg/kg = 14.34 ± 10.30
200 mg/kg = 10.17 ± 6.38
400 mg/kg = 2.50 ± 2.65
   STZ -induced Diabetic Mice Methanolic E.    400 mg/kg = 21.17 ± 12.47
chloroform F. 400 mg/kg = 104.0 ± 11.07
Ethyl acetate F. 400 mg/kg = 69.67 ± 15.32
aqueous F. 400 mg/kg = 54.5 ± 9.51
Kifle, et al., 2020 [32] Abyssinica Fresen. Normoglycemic mice Aqueous F 14 days   100 mg/kg = 26.67 ± 2.28
200 mg/kg = 15.17 ± 2.72
400 mg/kg = 11. 5 ± 5.47
Ethyl acetate F   100 mg/kg = 29.5 ± 6.28
200 mg/kg = 18.00 ± 3.13
400 mg/kg = 16.33 ± 2.31
  Mice Loaded with Oral Glucose Aqueous F   100 mg/kg = 21.5 ± 6.24
200 mg/kg = 13.67 ± 6.11
400 mg/kg = 5.67 ± 6.67
    Ethyl acetate F    100 mg/kg = 19.5 ± 7.33
200 mg/kg = 14.67 ± 6.83
400 mg/kg = 9.5 ± 6.31
STZ-induced mice Aqueous F 100 mg/kg = − 119.5 ± 14.22
200 mg/kg = − 142.83 ± 16.98
400 mg/kg = − 180.0 ± 12.56
100 mg/kg = 95.33 ± 11.82
200 mg/kg = 72.0 ± 15.02
400 mg/kg = 34.83 ± 9.75
Makonnenet al., 1997 [17] Moringa stenopetala, Albino rabbits Aqueous E 6 h 10 g/kg = 5.5 ± 1.48
15 g/kg = 9.8 ± 1.04
10 g/kg = − 37.7 ± 1.48 15 g/kg = − 33.4 ± 1.04
Melaku and Amare et al., 2020 [35] Datura stramonium Linn Normoglycemic mice Methanolic E 14 days   100 mg/kg = 17.64 ± 2.13
200 mg/kg = 17.11 ± 2.91
400 mg/kg = 15.66 ± 3.40
Diabetic Mice   100 mg/kg = 10.04 ± 1.66
200 mg/kg = 8.37 ± 1.94
400 mg/kg = 6.99 ± 1.65
Mussa. et al.2008 [11] Moringa stenopetalla, Non-diabetic Mice Aqueous E. 6 h 20.10 ± 10.02 − 23.60 ± 8.13
Chloroform F. 21.50 ± 10.70 −22.20 ± 8.96
Butanol F. 15.50 ± 8.39 − 28.20 ± 5.98
Aqueous R. 12.50 ± 10.38 − 31.20 ± 8.58
Alloxan-induced mice Aqueous E. 12.60 ± 10.16 −44.70 ± 9.24
    Chloroform F.   16.00 ± 7.71 −41.30 ± 6.44
  Butanol F. 41.40 ± 10.56 −15.90 ± 9.67
  Aqueous R. 37.80 ± 7.29 −19.50 ± 5.94
Nardos, et al., 2011 [23] Moringa stenopetala Alloxan-induced diabetic mice (Repeated doses) Aqueous E 8 days 55.4 ± 4.55 −8.6 ± 4.78
Ethanol E 59.2 ± 3.26 −4.8 ± 3.58
Chloroform F 47.9 ± 2.26 −16.1 ± 2.70
Butanol F 46 ± 3.53 −18 ± 3.82
Normoglycemic mice (Effects of a single dose) Aqueous E 23.2 ± 7.53 −14.8 ± 5.50
Ethanol E 24.8 ± 8.8 −13.2 ± 7.14
Petroleum F 2.2 ± 7.49 −35.8 ± 5.46
Chloroform F 20.6 ± 7.75 −17.4 ± 5.79
Butanol F 24.4 ± 7.78 −13.6 ± 5.85
Aqueous R 13.2 ± 7.83 −24.6 ± 5.90
Alloxan induced mice (single dose) Aqueous E 50.8 ± 4.48 −27.4 ± 4.3
Ethanol E 54.2 ± 6.08 −24 ± 5.95
Petroleum F 5.2 ± 3.44 −73 ± 3.20
Chloroform F 59.2 ± 6.26 −19 ± 6.13
Butanol F 55.2 ± 4.10 −23 ± 3.90
Aqueous R 18.8 ± 3.33 −59.4 ± 3.08
Rao and Adinew 2011 [33] Persea Americaca STZ-induced rats Ethanol E 30 days 145.18 ± 18.89 −6.84 ± 7.14
Seifu, et al.2017 [27] Melia azedarach Lin, Ob/ob mice and rat Aqueous E 20 days Decreased at 200mgg/kg and 400 mg/kg Similar at 200mgg/kg and 400 mg/kg
Shewamene, et al., 2015 [16] Otostegiainte grifolia, Normoglycemic mice Methanol E 4 h At 100 mg/kg = 25.61 ± 5.76
At 200 mg/kg = 33.77 ± 4.44
At 400 mg/kg = 1.48 ± 7.03
100 mg/kg = − 9.16 ± 4.18
200 mg/kg = − 1.00 ± 2.06
400 mg/kg = − 36.25 ± 5.81
Streptozotocin induced mice Methanol E 100 mg/kg =183.67 ± 51.36
200 mg/kg =215.67 ± 74.96
400 mg/kg = 168 ± 50.20
100 mg/kg = − 52.45 ± 47.08
200 mg/kg = − 20.45 ± 71.
400 mg/kg = − 67.62 ± 45.84
Oral Glucose Tolerance Test in rats Methanol E 4 h 100 mg/kg = 33.39 ± 5.02
200 mg/dl = 50.39 ± 4.37
400 mg/kg = − 22.19 ± 15.82
100 mg/kg = − 40.11 ± 6.64
200 mg/kg = − 23.11 ± 3.93
400 mg/kg = − 95.69 ± 15.71
Shewasinad, et al., 2019 [26] Thymus schimperi Normoglycemic mice or rat Methanol E Day 15 250 mg/kg = −11.8 ± 8.93
500 mg/kg = − 19.6 ± 7.49750 mg/kg = 1.6 ± 8.48
250 mg/kg = − 75.0 ± 7.16
500 mg/kg = − 82.8 ± 5.26
750 mg/kg = − 61.6 ± 6.60
Streptozotocin induced rat or mice Methanol E Day 15 250 mg/kg = 109.83 ± 11.42
500 mg/kg = 125.27 ± 51.21
750 mg/kg =146.17 ± 45.45
250 mg/kg = − 112.84 ± 35.52
500 mg/kg = − 97.4 ± 50.81
750 mg/kg = − 76.5 ± 45.08
Ethyl acetate F Day 15 250 mg/kg = 69 ± 35.29
500 mg/kg = 67 ± 32.80
250 mg/kg = − 167.6 ± 23.83
500 mg/kg = − 169.6 ± 19.99
n-butanol F Day 15 250 mg/kg = 132 ± 31.57
500 mg/kg = 143.8 ± 40.38
250 mg/kg = − 104.6 ± 17.91
500 mg/kg = − 92.8 ± 30.91
Aqueous F Day 15 250 mg/kg = 104.8 ± 33.16
500 mg/kg = 109 ± 33.46
250 mg/kg = − 131.8 ± 20.58
500 mg/kg = − 127.6 ± 21.06
In glucose loaded mice Methanol E Day 15 250 mg/kg = 80.2 ± 17.6
500 mg/kg = 61.2 ± 16.74
750 mg/kg = 54.4 ± 14.54
250 mg/kg = − 31.8 ± 11.17500 mg/kg = − 51.4 ± 71 At 750 mg/kg = − 60.2 ± 6. 67
Sileshi et al.2014 [7] Moringa Stenopetala, Alloxan induced swiss albino mice Ethanol E 6 h − 14.29 ± 6.65 34.77 ± 7.54
Hexane F 6 h − 25.50 ± 6.32 23.56 ± 7.24
Dichloromethane F 6 h −36.56 ± 7.91 12.50 ± 8.67
Butanol F 6 h − 22.76 ± 12.17 26.30 ± 12.68
Aqueous R 6 h − 23.31 ± 7.82 25.30 ± 8.41
Tafesse et al.2017 [20] Ajuga remota, Alloxan-induced mice Aqueous E 14 days 300 mg/kg = − 18.73 ± 3.32
500 mg/kg = − 29.88 ± 1.64
300 mg/kg = 23.27 ± 4.18
500 mg/kg = 12.12 ± 3.03
Ethanol E 14 days 300 mg/kg = − 18.84 ± 2.44
500 mg/kg = − 19.16 ± 2.36
300 mg/kg = 23.16 ± 3.52
500 mg/kg = 22.84 ± 3.45
Tamiru et al., 2012 [28] Caylusea abyssinica (fresen.) fisch. &Mey. normalmice Methanolic E 4 h 100 mg/kg = 9 ± 5.33
200 mg/kg = 8 ± 4.25
300 mg/kg = 10 ± 4.30
100 mg/kg = 11 ± 7.62
200 mg/kg =10 ± 6.91
300 mg/kg =12 ± 6.94
streptozotocin induced mice 100 mg/kg = 111.67 ± 53.44
200 mg/kg = 149 ± 41.58
300 mg/kg = 105.78 ± 51.61
100 mg/kg = − 33.7 ± 43.36200 mg/kg = 3.56 ± 27.45
300 mg/kg = − 39.66 ± 41.89
Oral glucose loaded rat 100 mg/kg = 3.83 ± 6.14
200 mg/kg = 8.17 ± 4.86
300 mg/kg = − 9.5 ± 12.18
100 mg/kg = − 14 ± 10.54
200 mg/kg = − 9.66 ± 9.85
300 mg/kg = − 27.33 ± 14.89
Taye et al., 2020 [29] Thymus schimperi alloxan induced diabetic mice Aqueous E 4 h 250 mg/kg = − 128.6 ± 60.97
500 mg/kg = − 155 ± 35.71
250 mg/kg = 76.4 ± 65.45
500 mg/kg = 49.8 ± 42.4
Methanol E 250 mg/kg = − 145.6 ± 56.11
500 mg/kg = − 171.2 ± 28.91
250 mg/kg = 59.2 ± 60.59
500 mg/kg = 33.6 ± 36.86
Tefera et al., 2020 [30] L. culinaris Diabetic mice Methanol E 21 days 100 mg/kg = −  61.34 ± 4.24
200 mg/kg = − 71.34 ± 4.79
400 mg/kg = − 82.25 ± 4.17
100 mg/kg = 49.66 ± 2.17
200 mg/kg = 39.66 ± 3.11
400 mg/kg = 28.75 ± 2.03
Tesfaye et al., 2016 [13] Justicia Schimperiana Normal mice Aqueous extract 4 h 200 mg/kg = − 1 ± 3.81
400 mg/kg = 10.17 ± 2.74
200 mg/kg = − 13.33 ± 4.19
400 mg/kg = − 2.16 ± 3.26
Streptozocin-induced mice 200 mg/kg = 2.5 ± 11.70
400 mg/kg = 39 ± 11.13
200 mg/kg = − 46.66 ± 9.33
400 mg/kg = − 10.16 ± 8.60
Toma et al., 2012 [19] Moringa Stenopetala Normal Butanol f. of Ethanol extract 28 days   500 mg/kg = − 2 ± 18.9
Alloxan Induced Mice Butanol f. of Ethanol extract 500 mg/kg = 77.6 ± 24.11 500 mg/kg = −2 ± 18.9
Tomaet al., 2015 [9] Moringa Stenopetala streptozocin-induced rats Ethanol fraction 14 days at 500 mg/kg = 15.77 ± 3.66 at 500 mg/kg = − 2.5 ± 3.77
Butanol fraction at 500 mg/kg = 13.1 ± 3.18 at 500 mg/kg = − 5.17 ± 3.61
Tsegayeet al., 2008 [18] Urtica simensis Hochst. ex. A. Rich
At 300 mg/kg
Unit mg/dl
STZ-induced diabetic mice Methanol E 4 h 152 ± 8.36 −131 ± 19.5
Aqueous E 147.9 ± 33.94 − 135.6 ± 38.33
Petroleum ether F. 10.5 ± 9.19 − 273 ± 20.05
Chloroform F. −14.1 ± 13.95 − 297.6 ± 22.63
Acetone F. 13.7 ± 21.72 − 269.8 ± 28.09
Methanol F. 105.5 ± 19.56 − 178 ± 26.31
Aqueous R 201.7 ± 40.03 −81.8 ± 44.75
Yibruet al., 2015 [15] Coriandrum Sativum STZI nduced T2DM Mice Ethanol 21 days Increased at 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg Decreased at 300, 400 and 500 mg/kg