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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 2 Pharmaceutical benefits of P. harmala

From: Improving health benefits with considering traditional and modern health benefits of Peganum harmala

Benefits Mechanisms and impacts Reference
Anti-cancer effects a. P. harmala alkaloids extract may be helpful in providing of new cytotoxic agents against chemo-resistant cancer cells.
b. P. harmala extracts significantly decreased the growth rate and cell survival of cancer cell lines, and the extract may induce cell death regarding natural cell growth rate.
c. P. harmala,s seed extract induced cell death and decreased the cell growth in the breast cancer cell line; they have suggested that herb might be useful for preventing the development of tumors.
d. B-9-3, a semi-synthetic derivative of β-carboline, has an anti-proliferative effect against tumor cells via induction of apoptosis and inhibition of cell migration.
[76,77,78]
Anti-viral effects a. P. harmala extract contains an anti-HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1) substance
b. P. harmala extract and its total alkaloids showed the inhibitory effect against influenza A virus replication.
c. Its aerial parts are an effective traditional folk medicine for the treatment of cough with potent antitussive, expectorant and bronchodilating activities.
d. Antiviral activity of the extract against influenza virus is most probably associated with inhibiting viral RNA transcription.
e. P. harmala MeOH seed extract showed anti-herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) activity.
Harmine was identified as antiviral active compound.
[79,80,81]
Anti-inflammatory effects a. Harmine reduced inflammatory cytokines.
b. Harmine averted inflammatory damage in the lung of LPS (lipopolysaccharides)-challenged mouse.
c. The alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids in ethyl acetate extract of P. harmala seeds could be attributed for the anti-inflammatory activities.
d. Methanol extracts of P. harmala has the highest anti-inflammatory activity.
[24, 82, 83]
Anti-bacterial effects a. Methanol and ethanol extracts of it seems may have antibacterial activity.
b. P. harmala extracts possesses strong antibacterial activity against methicillin and cefixime resistant S. aureus strains.
c. Styrene and some other components with potential antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities were formed in the smoke.
d. Flavonoids extract of P. harmala may be useful to treat uropathogenic bacteria.
e. Total alkaloidal extract of P. harmala seeds exhibited inhibitory impact in vitro against some phytopathogenic bacteria.
[84,85,86,87,88,89,90]
Anti-proliferative effects a. Some triterpenoids isolated from P. harmala exhibited potent anti-proliferative activities. [91]
Antioxidant effects a. The methanol extract of P. harmala demonstrated the highest antioxidant activity and good antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV).
b. The isolated protein from P. harmala seeds possessed strong antioxidant activity.
[92, 93]
Antihyperglycemic effects a. Treatment with 4-HPA (4-hydroxypipecolic acid) stimulated both glucose uptake and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4) translocation from intracellular to cell surface in skeletal muscle cells in a concentration-dependent manner, which might be leading to antihyperglycemic effect. [94]
Antidepressant activity a. The seed extract can correct the depression and the normal state of the treated animals. [95, 96]
Herbicidal effects a. Harmaline is a potential herbicide by its inhibition of PSII activity,
b. Hamraline inhibits multiple sites in electron transfer chain in PSII.
[97,98,99]
Anti-tuberculosis effects a. The ethanolic extracts of P. harmala has anti-tuberculosis effects comparable to isoniazid and rifampin and can be good candidates for novel and safe natural products against tuberculosis. [100, 101]
Anti-diabetes effects a. P. harmala seed extract has good antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
b. It has benefit procedures in controlling blood glucose and harmful results induced in pancreas and liver as a natural antidiabetic drug.
C. The harmine in the P. harmala seed extract exerts its anti-apoptotic effects by decreasing caspase-3 and may alleviate damages to the kidney histology in diabetic rats compared to the control group.
[102,103,104,105,106,107]
Antileishmanial activity a. Leishmaniasis is a major public health problem worldwide. P. haramala has natural components with anti-Leishmania activity. [108, 109]
Alzheimer a. The alkaloid may be valuable source for lead compounds discovery and drugs development for treatment of memory impairment such as Alzheimer,s disease. [110, 111]
Insecticidal effects a. The ethanol extract of P. harmala had a good insecticidal activity on P. xylostella.
b. The methanol extracts of P. harmala has insecticidal impacts on the larvae and adults of stored grain pest.
[112,113,114]