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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 3 Effects of XNE on serum biochemical parameters in male and female rats during the 90-day safety assessments

From: Safety assessment of the standardized aqueous extract from solid-state cultured Xylaria nigripes (Wuling Shen) in rats

Parameters Control Low Medium High
Male
 AST (U/L) 108.3 ± 28.8 120.2 ± 24.9 112.9 ± 15.0 115.9 ± 23.9
 ALT (U/L) 49.20 ± 20.81 56.30 ± 15.59 46.2 ± 8.93 51.40 ± 7.92
 ALP (U/L) 110.5 ± 25.6 119.4 ± 30.4 105.4 ± 16.6 106.0 ± 18.8
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.45 ± 0.08 0.48 ± 0.11 0.49 ± 0.11 0.41 ± 0.07
 Total protein (g/dL) 6.50 ± 0.36 6.36 ± 0.21 6.41 ± 0.21 6.30 ± 0.24
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.60 ± 0.21 3.57 ± 0.12 3.54 ± 0.16 3.52 ± 0.18
 BUN (mg/dL) 12.18 ± 2.95 10.55 ± 2.29 13.11 ± 1.96 12.68 ± 2.09
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.62 ± 0.09 0.60 ± 0.08 0.61 ± 0.05 0.64 ± 0.10
 Glucose (mg/dl) 300.9 ± 107.7 354.8 ± 109.2 253.4 ± 59.3 259.9 ± 83.1
 Sodium (mmol/L) 142.1 ± 2.8 141.5 ± 2.0 141.3 ± 1.9 141.3 ± 1.5
 Potassium (mmol/L) 9.67 ± 5.48 9.61 ± 1.85 9.66 ± 2.71 9.62 ± 2.23
 Calcium (mmol/L) 12.25 ± 0.35 12.16 ± 0.58 11.79 ± 0.57 11.91 ± 0.62
 Chloride (mmol/L) 94.30 ± 2.36 95.10 ± 1.52 94.50 ± 1.27 94.00 ± 1.05
 Phosphorus (mmol/L) 14.32 ± 4.14 14.16 ± 3.87 14.16 ± 4.31 14.86 ± 4.34
Female
 AST (U/L) 157.9 ± 51.3 167.9 ± 207.2 137.4 ± 60.1 122.7 ± 19.3
 ALT (U/L) 67.70 ± 27.31 62.10 ± 49.36 53.00 ± 33.21 47.20 ± 13.13
 ALP (U/L) 60.00 ± 18.07 67.40 ± 24.26 57.3 ± 18.39 49.90 ± 12.4
 Total bilirubin (mg/dL) 0.52 ± 0.13 0.45 ± 0.11 0.54 ± 0.13 0.45 ± 0.13
 Total protein (g/dL) 6.97 ± 0.27 6.83 ± 0.36 6.97 ± 0.19 7.01 ± 0.50
 Albumin (g/dL) 4.13 ± 0.17 4.15 ± 0.17 4.18 ± 0.18 4.20 ± 0.31
 BUN (mg/dL) 12.21 ± 2.01 13.26 ± 3.00 14.72 ± 2.58 13.85 ± 1.39
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 0.71 ± 0.12 0.64 ± 0.10 0.65 ± 0.08 0.66 ± 0.09
 Glucose (mg/dl) 230.5 ± 165.3 275.1 ± 121.2 190.2 ± 87.8 222.5 ± 124.0
 Sodium (mmol/L) 137.7 ± 4.4 139.3 ± 1.4 138.7 ± 1.8 139.9 ± 1.9
 Potassium (mmol/L) 13.50 ± 5.48 8.76 ± 2.85 10.94 ± 3.03 8.66 ± 2.05
 Calcium (mmol/L) 12.59 ± 0.74 12.07 ± 0.93 12.05 ± 0.52 12.24 ± 0.45
 Chloride (mmol/L) 96.60 ± 1.17 95.40 ± 3.17 96.60 ± 1.35 95.40 ± 1.78
 Phosphorus (mmol/L) 17.25 ± 4.37 13.43 ± 6.06 13.84 ± 4.63 12.89 ± 4.69
  1. Key: Data are expressed as mean ± SD (n = 10). AST Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT Alanine aminotransferase, ALP Alkaline phosphatase, BUN Blood urea nitrogen