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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 4 Summary on the incidence and pathological changes in organs of rats exposed to XNE by gavage for 90 days

From: Safety assessment of the standardized aqueous extract from solid-state cultured Xylaria nigripes (Wuling Shen) in rats

Organ Lesions Group
Control High dose
Male Female Male Female
Adrenal gland  
Brain
 Fore  
 Middle  
 Cerebellum  
 Stem  
Bone femur  
Bone marrow  
Cervix   N N
Esophagus  
Heart Infiltration, mononuclear cell, focal, slighta 2 (1/10)b 2 (1/10)
Intestine, small
 Duodenum  
 Jejunum  
 Ileum  
Intestine, large
 Caecum  
 Colon  
 Rectum Pinworm infestation, slight 2 (3/10) 2 (1/10)
Kidney Infarct, tubule, focal, slight 2 (2/10)
Liver  
Lung  
Lymph node, mesenteric  
Ovary   N N
Pancreas  
Pituitary gland  
Parathyroid gland  
Prostate gland Infiltration, mononuclear cell, focal, slight 2 (5/10) N 2 (5/10) N
Sciatic nerve  
Spinal cord
 Cervical  
 Lumbar  
 Thoracic  
Spleen  
Stomach  
Testicles   N N
Thymus  
Thyroid gland  
Trachea  
Urinary bladder  
Uterus   N N
  1. Key: Control, Distilled water; High dose, 2000 mg/kg; N, no tissue available. -, No effect; aDegree of lesions was graded from one to five depending on severity: 1 = minimal (< 1%); 2 = slight (1–25%); 3 = moderate (26–50%); 4 = moderate/severe (51–75%); 5 = severe/high (76–100%); bIncidence: Affected rats/Total examined rats (n = 10)