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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 3 Amino acid profile (g/100 g protein) of African wild lettuce leaves

From: Nutritional, antioxidant, angiotensin-converting-enzyme and carbohydrate-hydrolyzing-enzyme inhibitory activities of underutilized leafy vegetable: African wild lettuce (Lactuca taraxacifolia Willd)

Amino acid WLF WLR WLE WPI Adult Children
Methionine 1.53 ± 0.01d 1.89 ± 0.23b 1.65 ± 0.01c 12.88 ± 1.02a 1.5 2.7
Valine 6.96 ± 0.21a 6.45 ± 0.22b 6.93 ± 0.33a 6.07 ± 0.21c 2.6 3.8
Phenylalanine 5.38 ± 0.13c 5.57 ± 0.02b 4.89 ± 0.14d 5.79 ± 0.33a 2.5 6.9
Isoleucine 4.53 ± 0.01c 4.87 ± 0.41b 4.87 ± 0.11b 5.29 ± 0.03a 2.5 6.9
Leucine 5.93 ± 0.02a 7.68 ± 0.05a 6.53 ± 0.02a 7.85 ± 0.11a 1.0
Threonine 4.74 ± 0.22b 3.94 ± 0.03d 4.86 ± 0.05a 4.17 ± 0.03c 3.9 7.3
Histidine 1.97 ± 0.00b 1.6 ± 0.11c 5.69 ± 0.13a 1.46 ± 0.00d 1.0
Tryptophan 6.11 ± 1.11a 6.09 ± 0.42a 4.16 ± 0.01c 5.60 ± 0.01b 1.5 3.7
Lysine 6.45 ± 0.31b 3.34 ± 0.02c 7.06 ± 0.00a 3.0 ± 0.02d 0.4 1.25
ƩEAAs 41.63 ± 4.12b 39.83 ± 2.02d 40.95 ± 5.02c 50.65 ± 3.22a 3.4 6.4
Non-Essential amino Acids
 Glycine 6.48 ± 0.22a 6.14 ± 0.03b 5.77 ± 0.11c 4.25 ± 0.12d
 Alanine 6.70 ± 0.00b 4.71 ± 0.22d 5.78 ± 0.02c 6.74 ± 0.13a
 Serine 4.48 ± 0.04c 5.33 ± 0.00a 4.29 ± 0.03d 4.95 ± 0.02b
 Proline 6.40 ± 0.01b 6.09 ± 0.21c 6.72 ± 0.33a 5.22 ± 0.00d
 Arginine 6.33 ± 0.032b 5.27 ± 0.02d 6.62 ± 0.04a 5.86 ± 0.03c
 Tyrosine 1.97 ± 0.04c 4.88 ± 0.03b 1.39 ± 0.01d 5.29 ± 0.21a
 Cystine 1.36 ± 0.00b 1.39 ± 0.22b 1.04 ± 0.01c 1.67 ± 0.22a
 Aspartate 9.09 ± 0.11b 6.99 ± 0.42c 9.54 ± 0.03a 6.24 ± 0.04d
 Glutamate 12.65 ± 0.32c 13.08 ± 0.05a 12.94 ± 1.02b 2.15 ± 0.01d
 ƩNEAAs 57.43 ± 4.42b 58.76 ± 2.03a 55.48 ± 4.02c 47.66 ± 3.03d
Protein Quality Indices
 TAA 99.06 ± 6.02a 98.59 ± 3.02b 96.43 ± 4.02c 98.31 ± 2.02b   
 TEAA/TNEAA 0.72 ± 0.00b 0.68 ± 0.22c 0.73 ± 0.12b 1.06 ± 0.02a  
 ƩSAA (meth+cys) 2.89 ± 0.01c 3.28 ± 0.11b 2.69 ± 0.02d 14.55 ± 0.12a  
 ƩArAA (phy + tyr) 7.35 ± 0.23c 10.45 ± 2.11b 6.28 ± 0.32d 11.08 ± 0.52a  
 Arg/Lys 0.98 ± 0.02c 1.58 ± 0.03b 0.94 ± 0.11d 1.95 ± 0.02a  
 BCCAs 17.42 ± 3.02c 19.00 ± 1.22a 18.33 ± 2.02b 19.21 ± 2.02a  
 BV (%) 77.04 72.26 85.75 88.97 70  
 PER (g/100 g) 3.00 2.79 3.21 3.51  
 EAAI (%) 81.41 77.03 89.40 92.36  
  1. aWLF Wild lettuce powder, WLE Wild lettuce extracts, WLR Wild lettuce residue, WPI Wild lettuce protein isolate
  2. bMeans followed by different letters are significantly different (p < 0.05) according to Duncan post-hoc test; means of three replicates ± standard deviation
  3. Recommended daily allowance (RDA) of essential amino acids ((mg/100 g b.w)) for Adult and Children (< 5 yrs.) [39]. Total essential amino acids (ƩEAA), Total non- essential amino acids (ƩNEAA), Total sulphur amino acid (ƩSAA), Total Aromatic amino acids (ƩArAA), Limiting amino acid (LAA), Abundant amino acid (AAA), Branched chain amino acids (ƩBCAAs = Leu., Isoleu., Valine)