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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 2 Yield of volatile oil, oleoresin and piperine from various parts of black pepper

From: Phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of black pepper [Piper nigrum (L.)] essential oil and piperine: a review

Parts Volatile oil Extraction method Volatile oil (%) Oleoresin (%) Piperine (%) References
Seeds Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) based microwave Hydrodistillation 1.77 - - [43]
Seeds Hydrodistillation 2.66–5.06 7.6–9.4 - [39]
Seeds Hydrodistillation 1.60–2.80 4.27–10.74 2.62–5.50 [42]
Seeds Hydrodistillation 1.60–3.20 5.82–12.73 2.13–4.49 [38]
Seeds Hydrodistillation 1.24 - - [40]
Leaves Hydrodistillation 0.15–0.35 - 0.12–20.86 [41]
Seeds Microwave assisted hydrodistillation 1.45 - - [40]
Seeds Supercritical fluid extraction 1.70 10.60 5.80 [44]