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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 3 Composition of major essential oils of Piper nigrum from various origins

From: Phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of black pepper [Piper nigrum (L.)] essential oil and piperine: a review

Origin Parts Constituents Yield (%) and references  
South India Seeds β-caryophyllene 9.52–26.95 [38]
   Limonene 15.13–20.78 [38]
   Sabinene 0.00–19.23 [38]
   α-pinene 3.88–6.48 [38]
   β-bisabolene 1.32–7.96 [38]
   α-humulene 1.11–2.44 [38]
   α-copaene 0.20–5.51 [38]
   α-cadinol 0.18–4.89 [38]
   α-thujene 0.60–2.94 [38]
South India Leaves Nerolidol 0.14–66.32 [41]
   α-pinene 0.12–20.86 [41]
   β-caryophyllene 2.09–9.65 [41]
Bangladesh Seeds β-caryophyllene 18.39 [45]
   α-pinene 16.68 [45]
   Limonene 16.16 [45]
   β-pinene 13.61 [45]
   δ-3-carene 9.23 [45]
   β-phellandrene 3.16 [45]
   Copaene 3.13 [45]
   1-napthalenol 3.00 [45]
   β- myrcene 2.89 [45]
Sri Lanka Seeds β-caryophyllene 12.5 [47]
   β-terpenine 19.5 [47]
   Limonene 19.2 [47]
   Sabinene 19.2 [47]
   α-pinene 11.2 [47]
   β-pinene 12.1 [47]
   α β-phellandrene 4.8 [47]
   Myrcene 2.9 [47]
Malaysia Seeds Limonene 29.9 [48]
   β-pinene 19.0 [48]
   β-caryophyllene 14.0 [48]
   α-pinene 7.3 [48]
   δ -3-carene 10.6 [48]
   Myrcene 2.6 [48]
   α-phellandrene 2.2 [48]
   Linalool 2.1 [48]
Brazil Seeds δ-3-carene 55.43 [49]
   α-pinene 16.25 [49]
   sylvestrene 10.67 [49]
   germacrene D 2.17 [49]
   β-myrcene 1.99 [49]
   Isoterpinolene 1.4 [49]