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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 4 Pharmacological activities of Piper nigrum extracts, piperine and BPEO

From: Phytochemistry and therapeutic potential of black pepper [Piper nigrum (L.)] essential oil and piperine: a review

Pharmacological activities BPEO/ Piperine In vitro/
In vivo
Target/ Model Control(s) IC 50/Dosage Results / Remarks Reference
Antioxidant BPEO In vitro DPPH scavenging Not reported EC50 : 103.3 µg/ml Noteworthy radical activity observed. Though control details are not reported [50]
Anti-inflammatory Piperine In vitro B16F-10 melanoma cells Not reported MIC: 2, 5, 10 mg/µl Piperine showed dose dependent inhibition against B16F-10 melanoma cell lines. However proper control details not reported [51]
Anti-inflammatory BPEO In vivo Carrageenan induced acute inflammatory Balb/C mice Positive: Carrageenan 100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight The dose 500 mg/kg body weight was performed significant inhibition (72 %) at 3rd hour compared to control [52]
Anti-inflammatory BPEO In vivo Formalin induced chronic inflammatory Balb/C mice Positive: Formalin 100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight 500 mg/kg body weight BPEO produced 50 % inhibition of paw edema compared to control [52]
Anti-inflammatory BPEO In vivo Dextran induced acute inflammatory Balb/C mice Positive: Dextran 100, 500, 1000 mg/kg body weight 1000 mg/kg body weight significantly reduced the paw thickness 73.4 % at 3rd hour compared to the control [52]
Antibacterial activity BPEO In vitro Alcaligenes faecalis, Acinetobacter calcoacetica, Beneckea natriegens, B. subtilis, Brevibacterium linens, Clostridium sporogenes, Citrobacter freundii, E. carotovora, Enterococcus faecalis, E. coli, Micrococcus luteus Not reported Not reported Highest zone of inhibition (19.7 mm) was obtained against P. aeruginosa. However, in this study dosage and control was not reported. It reduces reliability of results [53]
Anticancer activity Piperine In vivo DMBA induced carcinogenesis in Syrian golden hamsters Postive: DMBA
Negative : Distilled water
50 mg / kg, oral administration for 14 weeks Results showed that piperine totally inhibited the oral carcinoma formation [20]
Anticancer activity Piperene In vtiro MCF-7 cell line Negative : Distilled water IC50: 1.21 µM for 24 h exposure Piperine exhibited significant synergistic effects in combination with paclitaxel on human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 [54]
Anticancer activity Piperene In vtiro HER overexpressing breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7 and SKBR-3) Negative : Distilled water IC50 : 200 µM & 50 µM for MCF-7 and SKBR-3 cell lines respectively, 48 h exposure Piperine strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Also, piperine inhibited HER2 gene expression. This study suggested that piperine may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer with HER2 overexpression [55]
Antiobesity activity Piperine In vivo Obesity-induced dyslipidemia in high-fat diet rats Not reported 40 mg / kg for 3 weeks Supplementation of piperine with high fat diet significantly reduced body weight and total cholesterol. Though control details not reported [56]
Antiaging and wrinkling BPEO In vitro Human neutrophil elastase Negative: Distilled water 1 µg/ml BPEP showed noteworthy elastase inhibitory activity. However, dosage of the experiment is not scientifically accepted [57]
Antihypertensive activity Piperine In vivo Anesthetize induced Sprague-Dawley male rats Positive:
1 to 10 mg/kg body weight Intravenous administration of piperine caused a dose-dependent decrease in mean arterial pressure (MAP) in normotensive anesthetized rats. Also, higher dose (30 mg/kg) of piperine did not cause any further change in MAP. However, this study not reported detailed dosages along with experiment duration. [19]
Antiasthmatic activity Piperine In vivo Asthma induced Balb/c mice Positive:
Ovalbumin + vehicle
4.5 & 2.25 mg/kg, oral administration, five times a week for 8 weeks Piperine-treated group had suppressed eosinophil infiltration, allergic airway inflammation and airway hyper responsiveness, and these occurred by suppression of the production of interleukin-4, interleukin-5, immunoglobulin E and histamine, than comparing with control group [58]
Antidepressant & cognitive Piperine In vivo Male wistar rats Positive:
5, 10 & 20 mg/kg body weight once daily for 4 weeks All the treatment showed anti-depression like activity and cognitive enhancing activity [23]
Antidepressant activity Piperine In vivo Corticosterone-induced depression in mice Negative: Distilled water 10 mg/kg body weight for 24 h. Significant decrease in sucrose consumption and increase in immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test [59]
Antidepressant activity Piperine In vivo Pilocarpine (350 mg/kg i.p.) induced rats Positive: Pilocarpine 25 mg/kg, p.o. for 10 days In comparison with pilocarpine, piperine significantly reduced lipid peroxidase and catalase activity, and increased GSH level, brain-plasma phenytoin and number of viable neurons [60]
Anticonvulsant activity Piperine In vivo Pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)- and picrotoxin (PIC)-induced seizure in mice Negative:
Normal Saline
30, 50 and 70 mg/kg, i.p. Piperine protected animals from PTZ induced seizures in a dose-dependent manner. PTZ-induced convulsion in piperine treated animals was significantly different compared to saline treated animals [61]
Insecticidal activity BPEO In vivo Sitophilus zeamais Negative: Distilled water LD50: 26.4 µl/g for 48 h BPEO showed some insecticide activity (contact toxicity) against Sitophilus zeamais [62]
  1. Note: BPEO Black pepper essential oil; MIC Minimum inhibition concentration; LC50 Lethal concentration; LD 50 Median lethal dose; IC50 Inhibitory concentration; EC50 Effective concentration