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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Fig. 2 | Clinical Phytoscience

Fig. 2

From: Differential expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in early- and late-stage diabetes: the effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Seed extract on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in Wistar-Albino rats model

Fig. 2

Weekly FBS and body weights. After diabetes induction (i.e., on day zero), FBS increased ~ 0.44 (44%) and ~ 3.5 (352%) times in NIA/STZ and STZ groups, respectively. By day 28, CCAE had lowered the FBS in both early (CCAE-NIA/STZ group, 133.8 ± 7.9 mg/dl, p = 0.004 vs. NIA/STZ) and late (CCAE-STZ group, 453.0 ± 41.7 mg/dl, p = 0.001 vs. STZ) diabetes groups to a value very close to Con (p = 0.23 for NIA/STZ group and p = 0.10 for STZ group, vs. Con), a demonstration of the chronic or long-term hypoglycemic effect of CCAE in both early- and late-stage diabetes. On day 28, the body weights of the treated groups were similar to those of corresponding controls (Con vs. CCAE-Con, p = 1.0; NIA/STZ vs. CCAE-NIA/STZ, p = 0.72; STZ vs. NIA/STZ, p = 0.69). Day “-15” indicates the starting day of diabetes induction by STZ or NIA/STZ injection, and day 0 marks the start of daily treatment with CCAE that lasted for 28 days. Con: nondiabetic control, CCAE-Con: nondiabetic control treated with CCAE, NIA/STZ: early-stage diabetic group, CCAE-NIA/STZ: the early-stage diabetic group treated with CCAE, STZ: late-stage diabetic group, CCAE-STZ: the late-stage diabetic group treated with CCAE

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