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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Fig. 4 | Clinical Phytoscience

Fig. 4

From: Differential expression of gluconeogenic enzymes in early- and late-stage diabetes: the effect of Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. Seed extract on hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia in Wistar-Albino rats model

Fig. 4

Hepatic PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression on day 28. After diabetes induction, there was a significant (~ 5 fold) rise in the mRNA levels of G6Pase (p = 0.005) and a slight insignificant rise of PEPCK in ET2D (NIA/STZ group, p = 0.987); treatment with CCAE (for 28 days) resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of G6Pase (p = 0.003). In LT2D, the expression of PEPCK increased significantly (~ 12 folds) after induction of diabetes (p = 0.023) and did not decrease significantly after CCAE treatment (p = 0.072). Con: nondiabetic control, CCAE-Con: nondiabetic control treated with CCAE, NIA/STZ: early-stage diabetic group, CCAE-NIA/STZ: the early-stage diabetic group treated with CCAE, STZ: late-stage diabetic group, CCAE-STZ: the late-stage diabetic group treated with CCAE. We used non-parametric tests to compare the variables between independent samples, followed by Mann-Whitney Test. We presented the data as the mean ± SEM. **, p < 0.01; ***, p < 0.001. Every bar is the average of 2 duplicate analyses for all rats of all groups

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