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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

Table 1 Cytokines and their role in the immunopathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

From: Flavonoids, alkaloids and saponins: are these plant-derived compounds an alternative to the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis? A literature review

Cytokine Producer cells Target Cell and Effect Role in Rheumatoid Arthritis Reference
TNF-α Monocytes/Macrophages. Pro-inflammatory action. Differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Neovascularization of the endothelium. Inhibition of regulatory T lymphocytes. Systemic bone erosion [24]
IL-6 Monocytes/Macrophages. Macrophage activation and proliferation, with differentiation into osteoclasts. Multiplication and differentiation of T lymphocytes in the Th17 subtype. Systemic inflammation [25]
IL-1α/b Monocytes/Macrophages. Osteoclast activation. T lymphocytes differentiation. Vasodilation. Pro-inflammatory [26]
IL-17 A Th17 lymphocytes/neutrophils Cell proliferation. IL-6 production. Chondrocyte multiplication. Myeloid cells and neutrophil chemotaxis. Endothelial neovascularization. Pro-inflammatory [27, 28]
IL-23 Macrophages Development, maintenance, and expansion of Th17 lymphocytes. Induction of IL-21/IL-22 cytokine production. Th17 lymphocytes [29]
IL-21 Th17 lymphocytes/Th2 cells/NK cells B cell maturation. Development of plasma cells and production of antibodies. Glycosylation of arthritogenic autoantibodies [30]
IL-12 Macrophages Differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes Cell-mediated immune responses, Th17 cell plasticity [31]