Target Cell and Effect
Role in Rheumatoid Arthritis
Pro-inflammatory action. Differentiation and activation of osteoclasts. Neovascularization of the endothelium. Inhibition of regulatory T lymphocytes.
Systemic bone erosion
Macrophage activation and proliferation, with differentiation into osteoclasts. Multiplication and differentiation of T lymphocytes in the Th17 subtype.
Osteoclast activation. T lymphocytes differentiation. Vasodilation.
Cell proliferation. IL-6 production. Chondrocyte multiplication. Myeloid cells and neutrophil chemotaxis. Endothelial neovascularization.
Development, maintenance, and expansion of Th17 lymphocytes. Induction of IL-21/IL-22 cytokine production.
Th17 lymphocytes/Th2 cells/NK cells
B cell maturation. Development of plasma cells and production of antibodies.
Glycosylation of arthritogenic autoantibodies
Differentiation of Th1 lymphocytes
Cell-mediated immune responses, Th17 cell plasticity