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International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

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Table 3 Antioxidants activities of Southern AfricaAfrican plants

From: African natural products with potential antioxidants and hepatoprotectives properties: a review

Plants Family Part used Solvents Assay Methods Inhibition/EC50 Country of origine References
Acacia galpinii Butt Davy. Fabaceae Bark EtOH DPPH 16.05 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Acokanthera oppositifolia Lan. Apocynaceae Stem MeOH ABTS/DPPH 99.0% at 0.08 mg/mL and 70% at 1 mg/mL South Africa [233]
Adenia gummifera Harms. Passifloraceae Root EtOAc AChE 0.0189 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Adenia gummifera Harms. Passifloraceae Stem MeOH ABTS/DPPH 94.2 at 0.08 mg/mL and 60% at 1 mg/mL South Africa [233]
Aloe arborescens Mill. Xanthorrhoeaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Aloe barbadensis Mill. Xanthorrhoeaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Aloe ferox Mill. Xanthorrhoeaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Aloe ferox Mill. Asphodelaceae Leaf EtOH/(CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O DPPH 0.086/0.288/0.288/0.517 mg/mL. South Africa [235]
Bauhinia bowkeri Harv. Fabaceae Leaf n-C6H12/CH2Cl2 DPPH. 11.147/5.21 μg/mL South Africa [236]
Bauhinia galpinii N. E. Br. Fabaceae Leaf n-C6H12/CH2Cl2 DPPH 79.58/9.92 μg/mL South Africa [236]
Bauhinia petersiana Bolle. Fabaceae Leaf n-C6H12/CH2Cl2 DPPH 47.45/8.18 μg/mL South Africa [236]
Bauhinia variegata Linn. Fabaceae Leaf n-C6H12/CH2Cl2 DPPH 97.02/8.40 μg/mL South Africa [236]
Heteromorpha trifoliate (Spreng.) Cham & Schltdl. Apiaceae Leaf CO(CH3)2 DPPH 4.35 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Indigofera frutescens L. Papilionaceae Leaf CO(CH3)2 DPPH 0 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb) Harv. Rutaceae Leaf CO(CH3)2 DPPH 4.0 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Milletia grandis (E.Mey.) Skeels. Papilionaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 4.6 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Brachylaena discolor DC. Asteraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 2.6 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey. Lamiaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 3.5 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Strychnos mitis S. Moore. Strychnaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 3.5 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Cyathea dregei Kunze. Cyatheaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 3.0 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Apodytes dimidiate E. Mey. ex Arn. Icacinaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 3.5 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Melia azedarach L. Meliaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 3.3 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Clausena anisata (Wild.) Hook.f. ex Benth. Rutaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 2.5 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Maesa lanceolata Forssk. Maesaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 1.4 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh. Rosaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 0.0 mg/mL South Africa [237]
Viscum album L. Viscaceae Leaf MeOH Fe2+ 10 mg/mL Nigeria [238]
Ficus capreifolia Delile. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.34 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus cordata Thunb. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.27 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus craterostoma Mildbr. & Burret. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.66 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus glumosa Delile Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 1.29 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus lutea Vahl. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 4.80 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus natalensis Hochst. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.69 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus polita Vahl. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.31 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus religiosa L. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.59 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus sycomorus L. Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 1.91 TEAC South Africa [239]
Ficus thonningii Blume Moraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 ABTS 0.77 TEAC South Africa [239]
Peltophorum africanum Sond. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 4.67 μg/mL South Africa [240]
Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv. Rutaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 138.78 μg/mL South Africa [240]
Clausena anisata (Wild.) Hook.f. ex Benth. Rutaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 119.36 μg/mL South Africa [240]
Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br. Fabaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH +++ South Africa [241]
Senna italic Mill. Fabaceae Root MeOH DPPH ++ South Africa [242]
Combretum vendee Combretecacea Leaf MeOH DPPH + South Africa [243]
Rhoicissus tridentate Wild & Drum Vitaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH 2.5 TEAC South Africa [244]
Baphia racemosa (Hochst) Baker. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 210.69/195.10 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Crotalaria capensis Jacq. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 195.26/207.09 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Erythrina caffra Thunb. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 268.6/173.28 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Lonchocarpus nelsii (Schinz) Heering & Grimme. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 247.70/134.64 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Virgilia divaricata Adamson. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 271.58/150.57 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Indigofera cylindrical L. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 22.31/41.39 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Xylia torreana Brenan. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 16.90/14.56 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Podalyria calyptrata (Retz.) Willd. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 35.21/36.66 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Dalbergia nitidula Baker. Fabaceae Leaf CO (CH3)2 DPPH/ABTS 9.31/21.30 μg/mL South Africa [245]
Maytenus peduncularis (Sond) Loes. Celastraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12 DPPH/ABTS/OH 1.88/8.65/23.92 μg/mL South Africa [246]
Maytenus procumbens (L.f.) Loes. Celastraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12 DPPH/ABTS/OH 3.56/4.03/107.69 μg/mL South Africa [246]
Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell. Celastraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12 DPPH/ABTS/OH 6.71/5.34/146.30 μg/mL South Africa [246]
Maytenus undata (Thunb) Celastraceae Leaf CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12 DPPH/ABTS/OH 3.89/7.89/80.68 μg/mL South Africa [246]
Eriosema robustum Baker. Fabaceae Twig EtOH DPPH 1.84 mg/mL South Africa [247]
Mormodica balsamina L. Cucurbitaleae Aerial parts CO (CH3)2 DPPH 200 μg/mL South Africa [248]
Senna italica Mill. Fabaceae Aerial parts CO (CH3)2 DPPH 120 μg/mL South Africa [248]
Cassia abbreviata Oliv. Fabaceae Stem bark CO (CH3)2 DPPH <7.8 μg/mL South Africa [248]
Waltheria indica L. Malvaceae Aerial parts CO (CH3)2 DPPH 80 μg/mL South Africa [248]
Tinospora fragosa (I. Verd.) I. Verd & Troupin Menispermaceae Aerial parts CO (CH3)2 DPPH 430 μg/mL South Africa [248]
Gymnospora buxifolia (Eckl. & Zeyl.) Loes. Celastraceae Aerial parts CO (CH3)2 DPPH 40 μg/mL South Africa [248]
Combretum apiculatum Sond. Combretaceae Leaf EtOAc/BtOH DPPH 3.91/2.44 μg/mL South Africa [249]
Aloe sessiliflora Pole- Evams. Xanthorrhoeaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Amaranthus asper Amaranthaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O DPPH/ABTS 72.5, 53.5 and 46.0%/96.5, 61.8 and 79.1% at 0.05 mg/mL South Africa [250]
Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell. Amaranthaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS App 50/75% South Africa [48]
Amaranthus spinosus L. Amaranthaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS 0.16 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Anchusa capensis Thunb. Boraginacee Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Annona senegalensis Pers. Annonaceae Bark EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Apodytes dimidiate E. Mey. Exarn Icacinaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 3.5 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Arbutus unedo L. Ericaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Aspalathus linearis (N.L.Burm.) R. Dahlgr. Leguminosae Leaf EtOH DPPH 3.5 ± 0.5 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Barleria albostellata C.B. Clarke. Acanthaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Barleria repens Nees. Acanthaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Berkheya setifera DC. Asteraceae Corn MeOH DPPH/H2O2 2 335/55 μg/mL Lesotho [251]
Bidens Pilosa L. Asteraceae Leaf (CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O DPPH 95.7, 94.2, 91.7%, at 1 mg/mL South Africa [252]
Bidens pilosa L. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS 12.10/0.057 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Brachylaena discolor DC. Asteraceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 2.6 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Broussonetia papyrifera L. Moraceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Buxus macowanii Oliv. Buxaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze Theaceae Tea MeOH DPPH/H2O2 1 440/75 μg/mL Lesotho [251]
Carpobrotus edulis L. Mesembryanthemaceae Leaf H2O/EtOH DPPH/ABTS/NO 0.018 and 0.016/0.020 and 0.022/0.05 and 0.023 mg/mL, South Africa [253]
Carpobrotus edulis L. Azioaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Cassia abbreviate Oliv. Caesalpinioidaeae Bark/Leaf/Root MeOH DPPH. 86/85/85% Zimbabwe [51]
Celtis Africana Burm. F. Ulmaceae Leaf/Stem MeOH DPPH 64.95/89.69% at 0.1 mg/mL South Africa [254]
Ceratonia siliqua L. Leguminosae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Chenopodium album L. Amaranthaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O DPPH 62.4, 87.2 and 81.7% at 1 mg/mL South Africa [252]
Chenopodium album L. Chenopodiaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS App 60/70% South Africa [48]
Clausena anisaa (Wild.) Hook. F. ex Benth. Rutaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 2.5 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Clerodendrum glabrum E. May. Lamiaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 3.5 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Combretum apiculatum Sond. Combretaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 1.6 ± 0.02 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Combretum molle R. Br. ex G. Don. Combretaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 9.83 ± 0.8 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Corchorus olitarius Engl & Diels. Tiliaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS 17.11/0.04 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Cotyledon orbiculata L. Crassulaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Crinum bulbispermum (Burm.f) MilneRedhead & Schweick. Amaryllidaceae Root EtOAc AChE 0.0393 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Cryptocarya woodii Engl. Lauraceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Cyathea dregei Kuntze. Cyatheaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 3.0 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Dahlia imperialis Roezl. Asteraceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Datura stramonium Wall. Solanaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn. Leguminosae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn. Mimosaceae Leaf/Root MeOH DPPH. 88/27% Zimbabwe [51]
Diospyros lycioides Desf. Ebenaceae Twig EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Dodonaea viscose Mart. Sapindaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Elaedendron matabelicum Celastraceae Root MeOH DPPH. 87% Zimbabwe [51]
Elephantorrhiza goetzei Harns. Leguminosae Root MeOH DPPH. 85% Zimbabwe [51]
Erythrophleum lasianthum Corbishley. Leguminosae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Euclea divinorum Hiern. Ebenaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Euclea natalensis A.Dc Ebenaceae Root EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Felicia muricata Nees. Asteraceae Leaf MeOH/(CH3) 2CO/EtOH DPPH 70/410/120 μg/mL South Africa [173]
Flacourtia indica Merr. Flacourticaceae Leaf/Root MeOH DPPH. 94/82% Zimbabwe [51]
Galenia africana L. Aizoaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 90.92 ± 1.2 μg/mL South Africa [46]
  Asclepiadacae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Gomphocarpus fruticosus R. Br. Greyiaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Greyia flanaganii Bolus. Greyiaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 7.9 ± 0.23 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Greyia sutherlandii Hook & Harv. Celastraceae Leaf/Root/Twig MeOH DPPH. 90/96/87% Zimbabwe [51]
Gymnosporia senegalensis Loes. Anacardiaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 2.6 ± 0.21 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. Ex C. Krauss. Apiaceae Leaf (CH3) 2CO DPPH 4.36 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Heteromorpha trifoliate Eckl & Zeyh. Myrtaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Heteropyxis natalensis Euphorbiaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. Hydnoraceae Leaf MeOH NO/DPPH/ABTS 60%/80%/95% at 0.05 mg/mL South Africa [255]
Hydnora Africana Thunb. Hypoxidaceae Tuber MeOH DPPH. 86% Zimbabwe [51]
Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. Papilionaceae Leaf (CH3) 2CO DPPH 0 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Indigofera frutescens L.F. Meliaceae Bark/Root MeOH DPPH. 96/87% Zimbabwe [51]
Khaya anthotheca C. DC. Bignoniaceae Bark/Fruit/Root MeOH DPPH. 81/85/45% Zimbabwe [51]
Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth. Ranunculaceae Root EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Knowltonia vesicatoria Sims. Anacardiaceae Root MeOH ABTS/DPPH 0.0036/0.0151 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Lannea schweinfurthii Engl. Rosaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 0.0 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh. Rosaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/H2O2 850/68 μg/mL Lesotho [251]
Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh. Verbenaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS 14.62/0.015 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Lippia javanica Spreng. Maesaceae Leaf (CH3) 2CO DPPH 1.4 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Maesa lanceolata G. Don. Magnoliaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH South Africa [46]
Magnolia grandiflora ex Dc. Meliaceae Leaf (CH3) 2CO DPPH 3.3 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Melia azedarach Blanco. Papilionaceae Leaf (CH3) 2CO DPPH 4.6 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Millettia grandis Jkeel. Myrsinaceae Stalk EtOH DPPH South Africa [46]
Myrsine Africana L. Chrysobalanaceae Bark EtOH DPPH South Africa [46]
Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth. Geraniaceae Leaf/Root MeOH ABTS/DPPH 100%/90% at 0.5 mg/mL South Africa [256]
Pelargonium reniforme Spreng. Geraniaceae Leaf/Root MeOH ABTS 100% at 0.025 mg/mL South Africa [256]
Pelargonium reniforme Spreng. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 19.8% at 2.5 mg/mL South Africa [257]
Philenoptera violacea Klotz sch. Piperaceae Root MeOH ABTS/DPPH 0.040/0.044 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Piper capense L.F. Polygalaceae Leaf/Stem MeOH DPPH 20% at 2500 μg/mL Lesotho [251]
Polygala virgate Vell. Ranunculaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 24.7 ± 2.05 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Ranunculus repens Watson. Anacardiaceae Leaf/Root MeOH DPPH. 96/96% Zimbabwe [51]
Rhus chirindensis Baker. Anacardiacae Leaf EtOH DPPH South Africa [46]
Rhus lancea L.f. Euphorbiaceae Leaf MeOH/n-C6H12/CH2Cl2/(CH3) 2CO ABTS 784/629.3/573.6 and 544.6 \( \mu \)g/mL South Africa [258]
Ricinus communis L. Polygonaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O DPPH 72.1, 97.7,85.3% South Africa [259]
Rumex ecklonianus Meisn. Amaryllidaceae Bulb EtOAc AChE 0.0003 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Scadoxus puniceusL. Fabaceae Stem bark MeOH DPPH/ABTS/H2O2/LO/NO 87.5%,89.47%,77.15%, 86.48% and 77.75% at 0.5 mg/mL South Africa [260]
Schotia latifolia Jacq. Anacardiaceae Bark EtOH DPPH 2.06 ± 0.03 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Sclerocarya birrea Hochst. Anacardiaceae Bark MeOH DPPH. 89% Zimbabwe [51]
Sclerocarya birrea Polygalaceae Root MeOH DPPH. 93% Zimbabwe [51]
Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen. Sapotaceae Bark EtOH DPPH South Africa [46]
Sideroxylon inerme L. Solanaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS App 35/60% South Africa [48]
Solanum nigrum L. Asteraceae Leaf (CH3)2CO ABTS/DPPH 97.8%/85.6 at 1 mg/mL South Africa [261]
Sonchus asper Hill. Asteraceae Leaf (CH3)2CO ABTS/DPPH 99.4%/56.1% at 1 mg/mL South Africa [261]
Sonchus oleraceus L. Menispermaceae Stem bark MeOH SOD/H2O2 13.11/30.04 μg/mL South Africa [80]
Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre. Loganiaceae Bark H2O DPPH/H2O2/ABTS/NO 0.739/0.023/0.089/0.49 mg/mL South Africa [262]
Strychnos henningsiib Gilg. Strychnaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 3.5 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Strychnos mitis S. Moore. Boraginaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH - South Africa [46]
Symphytum officinale Asteraceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS 13.99./0.012 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Tagetes minuta L. Cucurbitaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS 2.93/0.03 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F. Combretaceae Leaf/Root MeOH DPPH. 89/89% Zimbabwe [51]
Terminalia sericea Carnbess. Combretaceae Root MeOH ABTS/DPPH 0.0031/0.0147 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Terminalia sericea Carnbess. Fabaceae Leaf/Stem MeOH DPPH 14% at 2500 μg/mL Lesotho [251]
Trifolium burchellianum Serr. Alliaceae Root EtOAc AChE/ABTS/DPPH 0.0319 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Tulbaghia violacea Har v. Alliacea Rhizome MeOH DPPH/H2O2 35,19.3/17.9 μg/mL South Africa Olorunnisola et al., 2011 b
Tulbaghia violacea Har v. Alliaceae Rhizome Oil DPPH 83.0 μg/mL South Africa [263]
Tulbaghia violacea Har v. Urticaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH/ABTS App 45/75% South Africa [48]
Urtica lobulata E. Mey. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH ABTS 0.95 mmol TEAC/g South Africa [47]
Vigna unguiculata L. Cancellaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH 111 ± 2.5 μg/mL South Africa [46]
Warburgia salutaris Chiou. Canellaceae Bark/Leaf/Root/Twig MeOH DPPH. 73/87/94/89% Zimbabwe [51]
Warburgia salutaris Chiou. Fabaceae Leaf MeOH DPPH 2.5 mg/mL South Africa [257]
Xanthocercis zambesiaca Apocynaceae Root EtOAc DPPH 0.0005 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Xysmalobium undulatum R. Br. Rutaceae Leaf (CH3)2CO DPPH 4.0 μg/mL South Africa [237]
Zanthoxylum capense Har v. Rutaceae Leaf EtOH DPPH   South Africa [46]
Zanthoxylum capense Har v. Rutaceae Root MeOH AChE/ABTS 0.01/0.075 mg/mL South Africa [234]
Zanthoxylum davyi P.G. Waterman. Rhamnaceae Root MeOH ABTS/DPPH 0.0187/0.0291 mg/mL South Africa [234]
  1. Key: RSA radical scavenging activity, RC reducing power capacity, OH hydroxyl ion, NO nitric oxide radical inhibition, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide inhibition activity, LPO lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, ABTS + 2,2′-azinobis-3–ethylbenzothiozolin-6–sulfonic acid cation decolourization test, ß-CLAMS ß-carotene-linoleic acid model system, SORSA superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (SORSA), MLP microsomal lipid peroxydation, FRAP fe2+ chelating ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties, DPPH 1,1–dipheyl-2–picry-hydrazyl, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, TEAC trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, MeOH methanol, CH 2 Cl 2 dichloromethane, EtOH ethanol, EtOAc ethyl acetate, n-C 6 H 12 hexane, (CH3)2CO acetone, H 2 O aqueous, BtOH butanol