Clinical Phytoscience

International Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy

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Open Access

African natural products with potential antioxidants and hepatoprotectives properties: a review

Clinical PhytoscienceInternational Journal of Phytomedicine and Phytotherapy20162:23

DOI: 10.1186/s40816-016-0037-0

Received: 31 August 2016

Accepted: 25 October 2016

Published: 9 November 2016

Abstract

Free radicals are highly reactive molecules generated during oxidation reactions which in turn initiate chain reactions resulting to cellular damage. There is substantial evidence implicating free radicals especially reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the etiology of more than one hundred degenerative disorders in humans including, arthritis, atherosclerosis, ischemia and reperfusion injury of many tissues, gastritis, diabetics, central nervous system injury, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cancer. Scientific evidence postulates that bioactive compounds especially from natural products are capable of providing protection against free radicals. Consequently, few decades have witnessed a surfeit of research geared towards validating the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of the natural products. In this review, African natural products whose antioxidants activities were scientifically validated either in their crude extracts and/or derived products have been discussed. A total 1076 plants species representing 287 family, 132 isolated compounds and 7 insect/mollusk secreation were found. The plant species from the following families; Fababceae, Asteraceae, Lamiaceae, Moraceae, Euphorbiaceae, Combretaceae and Malvaceae have received more scientific attention than others. Analysis of the reports revealed that Combretum apiculatum, Telfaria occidentalis, Acalypha racemosa, Garcinia lucida were the most active plant extracts from African flora. The most active ROS-detoxifying phytochemicals were moracin T, U, S and R (8487), oleanolic acid (54), 5,7,4′–trihydroxy–3,8,3′,5′–tetramethoxyflavone (89), 5,7,3′–trihydroxy-3,8,4′,5′–trimethoxyflavone (88), luteolin (3′,4′,5,7–tetrahydroxy flavone) (117) and genistein (4′,5,7–trihydroxyisoflavone) (116). The significant antioxidant potential demonstrated by some crude extracts and their constituent compounds render them good candidates for the development of new drugs. Although, the study of the mechanisms of actions as well as clinical validation of some of these isolated compounds is lacking. It is hoped that pertinent scientist and stakeholders will look further into some of these compounds for detailed authentification and subsequent commercialization.

Keywords

Antioxidants DPPH Hepatoprotective Africa Plants Natural products

Introduction

Oxidation is a chemical reaction that transfers electrons or hydrogen from a substance to an oxidizing agent. Free radicals are generated during this oxidation reaction especially during oxidative respiration when there is a mitochondria leakage of activated oxygen [1], which in turn initiate a chain of reactions that results in cellular damage. Antioxidants terminate this chain of reactions by removing free radical intermediates, thus inhibiting further oxidation reactions [2]. They include reducing agents such as β-carotene, vitamin C, E and ascorbic acid, as well as enzymes like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione and peroxidases [3], and therefore exert their protective role by being oxidized themselves. Furthermore, many antioxidants compounds have been characterized form plants including flavonoids. Flavonoids are phenolic compounds with importants roles in scavenging free radicals and thus play vital roles in preventing oxidative stress associated disorders [4]. Among the common ROS are superoxide (O2·−), hydroxyl (OH), and peroxyl (OOH, ROO) radicals [5]. Enzymes capable of producing superoxide are xanthine oxidase, reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases and cytochrome P450 [1]. The imbalance between the production of these free radicals and the detoxifying capacity of the antioxidants results in oxidative stress which is among the major implicative factors in etiology of certain degenerative and chronic diseases including diabetes, atherosclerosis, parkinson’s disease [6], renal disorders [7], cardiovascular, inflammatory, cancer, autoimmune, neurodegenerative diseases [8], and several other human ailments [9].

The liver is the major regulatory organ responsible for the metabolism, storage, detoxification, secretions and excretions of various exogenous and endogenous molecules including xenobiotics [10]. It plays a vital role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and protects the body against deleterious effect of chemicals, drugs, toxin, organism and parasite [5]. Therefore, the healthy performance of the organ reflects the health status of human [11, 12]. However, during these protective roles this organ is susceptible to a numbers of diseases and disorders [13], from chemical drugs and other agents due to its distinctive metabolic roles and the proximal affiliation with the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) [14]. Hepatic injury may also results from excessive alcohol and paracetamol consumptions, exposure to infectious agents, xenobiotics and over the-counter drugs in western countries [15].

Hepatic diseases are a worldwide predicament often involving free radicals induced oxidative stress which if left untreated may advance from steatosis to chronic hepatitis, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma [16]. The conventional drugs commonly used to combat the diseases and disorders associated with the liver are beset with different undesirable effects on biological systems [17]. As a result considerable attentions has been geared towards finding alternative, less toxic and effective antioxidants and hepatocurative agents from Africa natural product for the prevention, managements and treatment of diseases and disorders associated with the liver [18]. The natural products with medicinal reputation could serve as lead sources of natural antioxidants for development of novel drugs [12].

Africa is blessed with enormous biodiversity of natural product for healing practices [19]. From time immemorial Africa medicinal plants have been used by virtually all cultures to meet their health care needs. Evolutions have made plants to harbor a numbers of antioxidant chemicals (phytochemical or secondary metabolites) as natural means of surviving in hostile environments [20]. Consequently, few decades have witnessed a glut of research geared towards validating the quality, quantity, protective roles as well as therapeutic effectiveness of these antioxidant in African plants against oxidative stress induced diseases and disorders.

However, available reviews on the antioxidant potencies of African natural products; focused only on medicinal plants [21], published decade ago with emphasis only on 38 plants [22], others are limited to Cameroonian medicinal plants, [23], few African vegetables, fruits and mushrooms [24], and hepatoprotective activities of medicinal plants [25]. This review is intended to serve as scientific baseline information for the documented African natural products with antioxidants and hepatoprotectve reputation as well as a starting point for future studies.

Methodology (Search strategy)

To identify natural products from African flora and fauna with antioxidant and hepatoprotective potentials, a review was compiled based on scientific literature from various sources including; Google Scholar, Science Direct, PubMed, Medline, Science domain [19, 22, 26, 27]. The keywords used for identification of relevant data included the following terms; antioxidant, radical scavenging activities, anti-aging principles, reactive oxygen species, free radicals, African medicinal plants, natural product, 2,2-Diphenyl-1–picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging assay (DPPH), reducing properties and lipid peroxidations. All relevant data previously published in English were retrieved. However, data for natural products from sources other than African countries were completely excluded from this review paper. Using the specified procedure for acquisition of necessary data, 641 articles were retrieved, out of which 315, mainly in the form of journal articles, books and reviews; were used for compilation of the current review.

The information obtained from these research articles, captured in the current review paper includes; scientific names, that is the family, genus and specific names, parts of plants or mollusk used, solvent system used for the extraction procedure, the bioassay test carried out, whether in vitro or in vivo, as well as the antioxidant and hepatoprotective potencies of natural products originating from African flora and fauna (Tables 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6). Information was also obtained from authenticated post graduate theses, conference proceedings with literature on antioxidant and hepatoprotective assay results of flora and fauna endemic or naturalized in Africa.
Table 1

Antioxidants activities of West African plants

Plants

Family

Part used

Solvents

Assay Methods

Inhibition/IC50

Country of origin

References

Abrus precatorius L.

Leguminosae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

72.48% at 5 mg/mL

Nigeria

[136]

Abrus precatorius L.

Leguminosae

Seed/Shell

Oil

DPPH/ABTS/LP/NO

52.9.1.9,2.1/3,3,1.4,1.2 mg/mL

Nigeria

[137]

Artemisia absinthii L.

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2228 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Acacia ataxacantha DC.

Fabaceae

Bark

CH2Cl2/EtOAc

DPPH

65/54% at 62.5 μg/mL

Benin

[138]

Acacia macrostachya Rchb. ex DC.

Verbenaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

4.30 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[139]

Acalypha segetalis Mull.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

>200 μg/mL

Nigeria

[140]

Acalypha torta L.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

>200 μg/mL

Nigeria

[140]

Acanthospermum hispidium DC.

Asteraceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

Benin

[141]

Adansonia digitata L.

Bombacaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

77.36%

Guinea

[142]

Adansonia digitata L.

Bombacaceae

Leaf

BtOH

FRAP

78%. at 500 μg/mL

Nigeria

[143]

Adansonia digitata L.

Bombacaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

24.50 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Aframomum melegueta K.Schum.

Zingiberaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

111.12%

Guinea

[142]

Aframomum melegueta K.Schum.

Zingiberaceae

(CH3)2CO

DPPH/SAS

0.11/0.105 mg/mL

Nigeria

[145]

Albizia chevalieri Harms.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

94.732% at 250 μg/mL

Nigeria

[146]

Alchornea laxiflora Pax & K. Hoffm.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

BtOH

FRAP

 

Nigeria

[143]

Alchornea ordifolia Mull. Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

EtOAc/(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

99.4/79% at 1.56 mg/mL

Nigeria

[147]

Allium sativum L.

Alliaceae

Spice

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

1.4/0.66 mg/mL

Nigeria

[148]

Alstonia boonei De wild.

Apocynaceae

Cortex/Folium/Radix

MeOH

DPPH

++/++

Nigeria

[38]

Alstonia boonei De wild.

Apocynaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

68.5/1.40% at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Althaeae radix L.

Malvaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

59 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Amaranthus hybridus L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

9.0 ± 2.1 μg/mL

Nigeria

Adetutu et al., 2013 [150]

Amaranthus viridis L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

3.4 ± 0.25 μg/mL

Nigeria

Adetutu et al., 2015

Anarcadium occidentale L.

Anacardaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

43.5/0.70 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Anisopus mannii N.E.Br.

Aslepiadaceae

Stem/Leaf/Root

H2O

RSA

0.2/0.15/0.19 mM

Nigeria

[151]

Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

79.09 at 5 mg/mL

Nigeria

[136]

Anogeissus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr.

Combretaceae

Root

H2O

H2O2/Fe3+

0.53/0.39%

Nigeria

[152]

Antidesma venosum E. Mey. ex Tul.

Euphorbiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

9.53%

Guinea

[142]

Arctostasphylos uva-ursi L. (Spreng).

Ericaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

13207 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Argemone Mexicana L.

Papaveraceaea

Entire plant

MeOH

DPPH

1.73 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Asperulae herba L.

Rubiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2557 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile.

Balantiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

52.53 μg/mL

Togo

[153]

Bardanae folium

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2337 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Basilici herba L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

5314 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Bauhinia rufescens Lam.

Caesalpiniaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

74.65% at 50 μg/mL

Nigeria

[154]

Besella alba L.

Basellaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH

+/−

Nigeria

[39]

Betulae folium L.

Betulaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3896 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Blepharis lineariifolia Pers.

Acanthaceae

Stem/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

44 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[155]

Blighia sapida K.D. Koenig

Sapindaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

38.54%

Guinea

[142]

Boerhavia diffusa L.

Nyctaginaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

[156]

Boswellia dalzielii Hutch.

Burceraceae

Stem back

EtOH

DPPH

83% at 10 μg/mL

Benin

[157]

Brachystegia eurycoma Harms.

Fabaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

59.70 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Brassica juncea (L.) Coss.

Brassicaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

68.9/1.30% at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Bridelia ferruginea Benth.

Euphorbiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

13.30%

Guinea

[142]

Bridelia micrantha Baill.

Phyllanthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

97.70/1.39 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Bursae pastoris herba

Brassicaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

654 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Byrsocarpus coccineus Schumach. & Thonn.

Connraceae

Folium/Radix

MeOH

DPPH

++/++

Nigeria

[38]

Byrsocarpus coccineus Schumach. & Thonn

Connaraceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

Benin

[141]

Calendulae flos L.

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1347 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Calliandria surinamensis Engl.

Fabaceae

Flower

MeOH

DPPH

<30% at 0.1 mg/mL

Nigeria

[159]

Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.

Burseraceae

Cortex

MeOH

DPPH

++++

Nigeria

[38]

Cantaurii herba Rafn.

Gentianaceae

 

H2O

FRAP

1347 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Cantharelle cibarius Fr.

Cantherallaceae

Mushroom

LPO

49.74 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Cantharellus cibarius Fr.

Cantharellaceae

Fruit

MeOH/EtOH

DPPH

2.68/3.12 mg/mL

Nigeria

[161]

Canthium setosum Hiern.

Rubiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

3.47 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Capsicum frutescens L.

Solanaceae

Spice

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

1.55/0.45 mg/mL

Nigeria

[148]

Carica papaya L.

Caricaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

0.58 mg/mL

Nigeria

[162]

Cassia sieberiana DC.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

50 μg/mL

Nigeria

[163]

Cassia sieberiana DC.

Fabaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

40.1/0.83 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Casstha filiformis mill.

Lauraceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

75.8/1.61 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Casuarina equisetifolia L.

Casuarinaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

88.97% at 100 μg/mL

Benin

[164]

Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl.

Pedaliaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

2.9 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[165]

Cetrariae lichen (L.) Ach.

Parmeliaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

125 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Chamomillae flos L.

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2856 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Chellidonii herba L.

Papaveraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3401 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Cichorii herba L.

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1408 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Citrus sinensis Pers.

Rutaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

69.7/1.22 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Cleome gynandra L.

Capparidaceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

>38.4 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[165]

Clerodendrum formicarum Gurke.

Lamiacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

>200 μg/mL

Cameroo

[140]

Clitocybe odora (Fr) P. Kumm.

Tricholometaceae

Mushroom

LPO

52.10 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Cnestis ferruginea DC.

Connaraceae

Leaf

H2O

Fe2/RP/DPPH

45.25/121.5/21.55 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[166]

Cnestis ferruginea DC.

Connaraceae

Cortex/Folium/Radix

MeOH

DPPH

++++/++++/++++

Nigeria

[38]

Cnidoscolus acontifolius (Mill.) I.M. Johnst.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

BtOH

FRAP

76% at 500 μg/mL

Nigeria

[143]

Cola lepidota K. Schum.

Sterculiaceae

Leaf

MeOH/CHCl3

DPPH

190/50 μg/mL

Nigeria

[167]

Combretum micranthum G. Don.

Combretaceae

Leaf

H2O

ABTS

16.37 μMol Trolox/μg

Burkina Faso

[168]

Crataegi flos L.

Rosaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3025 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Crateva adansonii Forst. F.

Capparaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

1562. 52 mg/mL

Nigeria

Tsado et al., 2016b [169]

Crinum jagus (J.Thomps.) Dandy.

Amarllidaceae

Bulb

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

85.78/1.86 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Crinum purpurascen Herbs.

Liliaceae

Folium/Radix

MeOH

DPPH

++/++

Nigeria

[38]

Croton lobatus L.

Euphorbiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

1.96 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Cymbopogon citrates Stapf.

Poaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

7.48 at 0.1% oil

Burkina Faso

[170]

Cymbopogon giganteus Chiov.

Poaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

18.76 at 0.1% oil

Burkina Faso

[170]

Detarium microcarpum Guill.

Caesalpiniaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

89.00 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Detarium microcarpum Guill.

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

48.45 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Detarium senegalense J.F. Gmel.

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

94.26%

Guinea

[142]

Dialium dinklagei Harms.

Caesalpiniaceae

Leaf

H2O

Fe2/RP/DPPH

14.75/133.5/21.85 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[166]

Dialium guineense Willd

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

82.44%

Guinea

[142]

Dialium guineense Willd

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Dichapetalum guineense (DC.) Keay.

Dichapetalaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

Benin

[141]

Dicliptera verticillata C. Chr.

Acanthaceae

Stem/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

785 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[155]

Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC.

Ebenaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

111.75%

Guinea

[142]

Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A. DC.

Ebenaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Diospyros monbuttensis Gurke.

Fabaceae

Leaf

H2O

Fe2+/RP/DPPH

9.41/> 200/22.25 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[166]

Duranta repens L.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

72.61/1.71 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Dyschoriste perrottetii (Nees) Kuntze.

Acanthaceae

Stem/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

45 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[155]

Ehinaceae purpurea L. (Monench)

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

4033 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Ekebergia senegalansis A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

13.33 μg/mL

Nigeria

Aladesanmi et al., 2007 [156]

Entada Africana Guill. & Per.

Fabaceae

Stem back

n-C6H12

DPPH/β-CLAMS/MLP

81.08/235.30/3.53 μg/mL

Nigeria

[83]

Entada africana Guill. & Per.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

0.40 μg/mL

Togo

[153]

Entada Africana Guill. & Per.

Fabaceae

Leaf/Stem bark/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

3.36/1.36/1.4 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[171]

Entandrophragma angolense C. DC.

Meliaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH

70.34 at 5 mg/mL

Nigeria

[136]

Epilobii herba

Rosaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

7899 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Equiseti herba

Equisetaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2222 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Erythrina sigmoidea pobeg.

Fabaceae

Stem Bark

MeOH

DPPH

>200 μg/mL

Nigeria

[140]

Ethulia conyzoides L.F.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

46.16 ± 1.52 μg/mL

Nigeria

[172]

Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

3.68 at 0.1% oil

Burkina Faso

[170]

Euphrasiae herba

Orobandiaceae

Leaf

H2O

FRAP

3107 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Farfarae folium

Asteraceae

Leaf

H2O

FRAP

5350 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Felicia muricata Nees.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH/(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

70/410/120 μg/mL

Nigeria

[173]

Ficus asperifolia Miq.

Moraceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH/Fe2/FRAP/NO/OH

78.65/59.27/44.05/47.03/29.25 at 5 mg/mL

Nigeria

[174]

Ficus capensis Thunb

Moraceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

13.05%

Guinea

[142]

Ficus dicranostyla Mildbr.

Moraceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

>38.4 μg/mL

Côte

[165]

Ficus exasperate Roxb.

Moraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

23% at 10 μg/mL

Benin

[157]

Ficus platyphylla Delile.

Moraceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

1.93 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[139]

Ficus sycomorus L.

Moraceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Flacourtia flavescens Willd.

Flacourtiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

>70% at 100 μg/mL

Benin

[157]

Foeniculi fructus B.P.

Apiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

142 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Fragariae vesca L.

Rosaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

11022 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Fraxini excelsior L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

7129 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Funtumia elastic (Preuss) Stapf.

Apocynaceae

Folium

MeOH

DPPH

+++

Nigeria

[38]

Garcina kola Heckel.

Clusiaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

69.65/1.33 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Gardenia erubescens Stapf & Hutch.

Rubiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Geranium robertianum L.

Geraniaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

10696 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Gnetum africanum Welw.

Gnetaceae

Leaf

MeOH

  

Nigeria

[175]

Gongronema latifolia Bush Buck (En).

Asclepiadaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH

+++/+++

Nigeria

[39]

Gongronema latifolia Bush Buck (En).

Asclepiadaceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

90.70 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Gongronema latifolia Bush Buck (En).

Asclepiadaceae

Leaf

BtOH/H2O

DPPH

0.082/0.245 mg/mL

Nigeria

[176]

Gossypium arboretum L.

Malvaceae

Back

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

Aladesanmi et al., 2012

Guiera senegalensis Lam.

Combretaceae

Stem/Leaf/Root

H2O

DPPH

15.4/20/17 μL/3 mL

Nigeria

[151]

Harungana madagascariensis Poir.

Hypericaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

85/1.95 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Hederae folium

Araliaceae

 

H2O

FRAP

5100 μMol/L

Nigeria

[30]

Hedranthera barteri (Hook.f.).

Apocynaceae

Folium

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

[38]

Hericium erinaceus (Bull.) Persoon.

Hericiaceae

Mushroom

LPO

36.31 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Hibisci flos L.

Malvaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3157 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Malvaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

140.9

Nigeria

[177]

Hybanthus enneaspermus (L.) F. Muell.

Violaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

>70% at 100 μg/mL

Benin

[157]

Hygrophila auriculata (schumach.) Heine.

Acanthaceae

Stem/leaf

H2O

DPPH

20 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[155]

Hymenocadia acida Tul.

Phllanthacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

66.9/1.48 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Hypericum perforatum L.

Hypericaceae

 

H2O

FRAP

5127 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Icacina trichantha Oliv.

Icacinaceae

Cortex

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

[38]

Ipomoea asarifolia Roem.

Convolvulaceae

Stem/Leaf/Root

H2O

DPPH

50/42/65 μL/mL

Nigeria

[151]

Irvingia gabonensis Baill. ex Lanen.

Irvingiaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

15.30 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Justicia galeopsis T. Anderson ex C.B. Clarke.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

>38.4 μg/mL

Ivory Coast

[165]

Khaya grandifoliola C.DC.

Meliaceae

Stem back

n-C6H12

DPPH/β-CLAMS/MLP

50.00/13.86/2.99 μg/mL

Nigeria

[83]

Khaya senegalensis A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

42.58 at 5 mg/mL

Nigeria

[136]

Khaya senegalensis A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Leaf

H2O

ABTS

15.47/21.97 μMol Trolox/μg

Burkina Faso

[168]

Kigelia Africana (Lam.) Benth.

Bignoniaceae

Leaf/Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

56.9 and 13.7 μg/mL

Ghana

[178]

Laccaria amethystine (Huds) Cook.

Hydnangiaceae

Mushroom

LPO

53.64 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Laccaria laccata (Scop) Cook.

Hydnangiaceae

Mushroom

--

LPO

34.77 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Lactarius deliciousus (L. ex Fr) S.F. Gray.

Russulaceae

Mushroom

LPO

34.46 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Lactuca taraxicofolia (Wild.) Schum.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

2.0 ± 0.3 μg/mL

Nigeria

Adetutu et al., 2015

Landolfia owariensis P. Beauv.

Apocynaceae

Folium

MeOH

DPPH

+++

Nigeria

[38]

Landolphia heudelotii A. DC.

Apocynaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

8.34 s %

Guinea

[142]

Lannea acida A. Rich.

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

29.77%

Guinea

[142]

Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause.

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Lannea nigritana (scott Elliot) Keay.

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

7.53%

Guinea

[142]

Lantana ukambensis (Vatke) Verdc.

Verbenaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH

5.96 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[139]

Lapaca spp

Lapacaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

51.15/1.01 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

Chinaka et al., 2013

Laportea Aestuans (L.) Chew.

Urticaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/O2/OH/NO/H2O2/ABTS/LPO

15.0/247.0/84.3/67.3/230.7/81.0/82.7

Nigeria

[179]

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1260 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Lavandulae angustifolia Mill.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

7377 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Leea guinensis L.

Leeceae

Lignum

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

[38]

Lepidagathis anobrya Nees.

Acanthaceae

Stem/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

16.33 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[155]

Lepista nuda (Bull.) Cook.

Tricholometaceae

Mushroom

LPO

53.65 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Lepista saeva (Fr) Cook.

Tricholometaceae

Mushroom

LPO

34.46 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Lippia multiflora Moldeuke.

Verbanaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

39.29 at 0.1% oil

Burkina Faso

[170]

Luglandis folium

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

7432 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Macrolepiotata procera (Scp) Singer.

Lepiotaceae

Mushroom

--

LPO

38.75 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Majoranae folium Mull. Arg.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

4453 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Mallotus oppositifolius (Geiseler) Mull. Arg.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

78.92/1.69 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Malvae herba L.

Malvaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

927 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Mangifera indica Blume.

Anacardiacea

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

0.313 mg/mL

Nigeria

[162]

Markhamia tomentosa K. schum. ex Engl

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

16.50 μg/mL

Nigeria

[156]

Marrubium vulgare L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1653 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Massularia acuminata (G.Don) Bullock.

Rubiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

4.00 μg/mL

Nigeria

[156]

Melissa officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

25234 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Mentha piperita L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

8987 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Achille Millefolium L.

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3228 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Monodora myristica Blanco.

Annonaceae

Seed

CH2Cl2

DPPH

54.50 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Morinda lucida Benth.

Rubiacae

Leaf/Root

Oil

DPPH/ABTS/LP

7.82,6.20,0.08/7.82,8.82 and 0.02 mg/mL

Nigeria

[137]

Morus nigra L.

Moraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2360 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Mucuna pruriens (L) DC.

Fabaceae

Leaf

H2O/EtOH

DPPH

32.63/41.40 at 10 mg/mL

Nigeria

[180]

Mucuna pruriens (L) DC.

Fabaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

7.30 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Murraya koenigi (L.) Sprenge

Rutaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

31.30/0.58 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Myrianthus arboreus P. Beauv

Cecropiaceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

15.20 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[165]

Myristica fragrans Houtt.

Myristicaceae

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH/SAS

0.10/0.135 mg/mL

Nigeria

[145]

Myrtilli fructus

Ericaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

7539 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Nauclea latifolia Blanco.

Rubiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

79.61%

Guinea

[142]

Nauclea latifolia Blanco.

Rubiaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

1.56 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Nelsonia canescens spreng.

Acanthaceae

Stem/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

24.33 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[155]

Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.)

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

H2O

Fe2/RP/DPPH

7.28/148/19.5 μg/mL

Ivory coast

[166]

Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.)

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

BtOH

FRAP

72% at 500 μg/mL

Nigeria

[143]

Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.)

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

H2O

RP/DPPH

148.0/19.5

Ivory coast

[166]

Newbouldia laevis (P.Beauv.)

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

155.17 mg/mL

Nigeria

Tsado et al., 2016b [169]

Nymphaea lotus L.

Nympheaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

82.99%

Guinea

[142]

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

3.82 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[170]

Ocimum canum L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

4.20 at 0.1% oil

Burkina Faso

[170]

Ocimum gratissimum L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

55.70 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Olax varidis L

Olaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

58.19/1.19 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Oleae folium Hoffmans. & Link

Oleaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3945 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Oncoba spinosa Forssk.

Flacourtiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

13.52%

Guinea

[142]

Oxalis corniculata L.

Oxalidaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

95.68% at 100 μg/mL

Benin

[164]

Ozoroa insignis Delile.

Anacardiaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH

7.53 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[139]

Parinari curatelifolia Planch. Ex Benth.

Chrysobalanaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

0.20 μg/mL

Togo

[153]

Parinari curatelifolia Planch. Ex Benth.

Chrysobalanaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH

10.5 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[139]

Parinari excelsa Sabina.

Chrysobalanaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

77.52%

Guinea

[142]

Parkia biglobosa Benth.

Fabaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

92.25%

Guinea

[142]

Parkia biglobosa Benth.

Fabaceae

Stalk

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

59.01/1.24 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Parkia biglobosa Benth.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH/EtOH

DPPH

56.83/58.17% at 0.1 mg/mL

Ghana.

[181]

Parkia biglobosa Benth.

Fabaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Pavetta corymbosa F.N. Williams.

Rubiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

75.34 at 10 μg/mL

Benin

[157]

Pavetta crassipes K. schum.

Rubiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

82.35 at 5 mg/mL

Nigeria

[136]

Petroselini crispum (Mill)

Apiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1318 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Phaseoli pericarpum

Fabaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

319 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Phaseolus lunatus Haberle.

Fabaceae

Seed coat

-

DPPH

0.37 mg/mL

Nigeria

[182]

Picralima nitida Th. & H. Dur.

Apocynaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

55.3/1.38 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Piper guineense Thonn.

Piperaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

36.90 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Plantago lancfolium

Plantaginaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1727 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Plantago majorfolium

Plantaginaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2733 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Pleioceras barteri Baill.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

-

Nigeria

Aladesanmi et al., 2012

Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr) P. Kumm

Pleuntaceae

Mushroom

-

LPO

45.84 nM

Nigeria

[160]

Plumbago zeylanica L.

Plumbaginaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

-

Nigeria

Aladesanmi et al., 2012

Polygonum aviculare L.

Polygonaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1210 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Primulae radix L.

Primulaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2197 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Psidium guajava L. (GCL).

Myrtaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

0.04 mg/mL

Nigeria

[162]

Psidium guajava L. (GCL).

Myrtaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

[156]

Psidium guayava L. (GCL).

Myrtaceae

Stem bark

EtOH

DPPH

>70% at 100 μg/mL

Benin

[157]

Psorospermum febrifugum Spach.

Hypericaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

2.3 μg/mL

Ivory Coast

[165]

Pterocarpus erinaceus Lam.

Papilionaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

3.37 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Pterocarpus erinaceus Lam.

Fabaceae

Stem bark

H2O

DPPH

0.80 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[183]

Pterocarpus erinaceus Lam.

Fabaceae

Leaf/Stem bark

H2O

ABTS

8.08/22.20 μMol Trolox/μg

Burkina Faso

[168]

Pterocarpus midbraedii Jacq.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

  

Nigeria

[175]

Pterocarpus milbraedii Jacq.

Fabaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

20.30 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Pterocarpus santalinoides L’He’r. ex DC.

Fabaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

8.18%

Guinea

[142]

Raphia sudanica A. Chev.

Arecaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

93.98%

Guinea

[142]

Raphiostylis beninensis Planch. ex Benth.

Icacinaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

43.33%

Guinea

[142]

Rhynchosia buettneri Harms.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

7.5 μg/mL

Ivory Coast

[165]

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

60.8/1.43 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Rosmarini officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1277 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Puccinia rubi Schumach.

Phragmidiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

12211 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Puccinia rubi-idaei (DC.) P. Karst.

Phragmidiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

10025 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Saba senegalensis (A.D.C) Pichon.

Apocynaceae

Stem/Leaf

H2O

DPPH

18.4 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

Yougbaré-Ziébrou et al., 2015 [184]

Saba senegalensis (A.D.C) Pichon.

Apocynaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Sacocephalus latifolius Afzel. Ex R. Br.

Rubiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

66.2/1.49 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Salicis cortex Senna occidentalis

Saliaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

10892 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Salviae officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

7603 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Sanbuci flos L.

Caprifoliaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

4055 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Satureja herba Mill.

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

5339 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Schrankia leptocarpa DC.

Mimosaceae

Entire Plant

MeOH

DPPH

1.35 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Sclerocarya birrea HO Chst.

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Secamone afzelii (Roem. & Schut.) K. Schum.

Asclepiadaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

1.74 μg/mL

Benin

[141]

Senae folium L.

Fabaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1078 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Serpylli herba

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

10868 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Sesanum indicum L.

Pedallaceae

Leaf

CH2Cl2

DPPH

43.10 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Senna occidentalis (L.) Link.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

263.53 μg/mL

Nigeria

[185]

Sida acuta Burm. F.

Malvaceae

Whole plant

H2O

ABTS

6.12 μMol Trolox/μg

Burkina Faso

[168]

Solanium aethiopicum L.

Solanaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

5.2 μg/mL

Nigeria

Adetutu et al., 2015

Solanum melongena L.

Solanaceae

Leaf

MeOH

  

Nigeria

[175]

Solidaginis virgaurea L.

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

4256 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre.

Menispermaceae

Folium

MeOH

DPPH

+++

Nigeria

[38]

Sphenoceutrum jollyanum Pierre.

Menispermaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

++

Nigeria

[156]

Spiraea herba L.

Rosaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

15256 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Spondias mombin Jacq.

Anacardiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

93.83%

Guinea

[142]

Stigmata maydis L.

Poaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

1009 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Strobilus lupuli L.

Cannabidaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2204 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Strophanthus hispidus DC.

Apocynaceae

Leaf, root

MeOH

DPPH

49.8 and 45.1 μg/mL

Ghana

[178]

Strychnos spinosa Lam.

Loganiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

111.71%

Guinea

[142]

Tamarindus indica L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

116.75%

Guinea

[142]

Tamarindus indica L.

Caesalpiniaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

12.42 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.

Cucurbitaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH

+/−

Nigeria

[39]

Telfaria occidentalis Hook. F.

Cucurbitaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

1.8 ± 0.2 μg/mL

Nigeria

[150]

Teraxaci folium

Asteraceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

4600 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Terminalia avicennioides Guill. & Perr.

Combretaceae

Root

H2O

H2O2/Fe3+

0.58/0.66

Nigeria

[152]

Terminalia catappa L.

Combretaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

0.084 mg/mL

Nigeria

[186]

Terminalia catappa L.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

58.19/1.30 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub.

Fabaceae

Fruit

EtOH

DPPH

12.70 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Tetrapleura tetraptera Taub.

Fabaceaee

Leaf

MeOH/EtOH

DPPH

68.35/69.49% at 0.1 mg/mL

Ghana.

[181]

Thymi herba

Lamiaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

9069 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Tiliae flos Mill.

Malvaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3807 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Trema orientalis (L.) Blume.

Cannabaceae

Leaf

H2O

Fe2/RP/DPPH

24.55/24.3/22.75 μg/mL

Ivory Coast

[166]

Trichilia heudeloti. Planch.

Meliaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

6.50 μg/mL

Nigeria

Aladesanmi et al., 2012

Urticae folium L.

Urticaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

3168 mol/L

Not stated

[30]

Uvaria chamae P. Beauv.

Annonaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

13.52%

Guinea

[142]

Uvaria chanae P. Beauv.

Annonaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

95.08/1.9 at 400 μg/mL

Nigeria

[149]

Verbasi flos L.

Scrophulariaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

603 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Verbenae herba

Verbinaceaae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

2089 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Vernonia amygdalina Delile.

Asteracea

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

19.33 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Vernonia Amygdalina Delile.

Astereacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

85.8 at 20 μg/mL

Nigeria

[187]

Vernonia amygdalina Delile.

Asteracea

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

2.30 mg/mL

Nigeria

[162]

Veronicae officinalis L.

Plantaginaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

6514 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Violae tricolor L.

Violaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

846 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Visci albi L.

Santalaceae

Not stated

H2O

FRAP

727 μMol/L

Not stated

[30]

Vitellaria paradoxa C.FGaertn

Sapotaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

<17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Vitex doniana Sweet.

Verbenaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

82.99%

Guinea

[142]

Vitex doniana Sweet.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

H2O/EtOH

DPPH

87.52/3.30 at 10 mg/mL

Nigeria

[180]

Voacanga Africana Stapf ex Scott Elliot.

Liliaceae

Folium

MeOH

DPPH

++++

Nigeria

[38]

Xeoderris sthulmannii L.

Fabaceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

2.36 μg/mL

Burkina Faso

[139]

Ximenia Americana L.

Olacaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

17.57 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Xylopia aethiopica A. Rich.

Annonaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

13.70%

Guinea

[142]

Xylopia aethiopica A. Rich.

Annonaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

10.70 μg/mL

Nigeria

[158]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Zingebracea

Spice

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

1.21,/0.04 mg/mL

Nigeria

[148]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Zingiberaceae

-

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH/SAS

0.075/0070 mg/mL

Nigeria

[145]

Ziziphus mauritiana Lam.

Rhamnaceae

Fruit

MeOH

FRAP

18.28 mmol AEAC/100 g

Burkina Faso

[144]

Key: +++ Strong intensity of yellow colouration, ++ Intermediate intensity of yellow colouration, + Weak intensity of yellow colouration, − No yellow colouration, + + − Antioxidant in low quantity, + ++ − Antioxidant in moderate quantity, ++++ − Antioxidant in large quantity, RSA radical scavenging activity, RC reducing power capacity, OH hydroxyl ion, NO nitric oxide radical inhibition, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide inhibition activity, LPO lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, ABTS + 2,2′-azinobis-3–ethylbenzothiozolin-6–sulfonic acid cation decolourization test, ß-CLAMS ß-carotene-linoleic acid model system, MLP microsomal lipid peroxydation, FRAP fe2+ chelating ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties, DPPH 1,1–dipheyl-2–picry-hydrazyl, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, TEAC trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, MeOH methanol, CH 2 Cl 2 dichloromethane, EtOH ethanol, EtOAc ethyl acetate, n-C 6 H 12 hexane, (CH3) 2CO acetone, H 2 O aqueous, BtOH butanol

Table 2

Antioxidants activities of Northern Africa African plants

Plants

Family

Part used

Solvents

Assay Methods

Inhibition/EC50

Country of origin

References

Acacia arabica (Lam) Wild.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

61.20% at 50 μg/mL

Sudan

[188]

Acacia nilotica Delile.

Mimosaceae

Bark

EtOH

SORSA

75% at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Acacia nilotica Delile.

Mimosaceae

Pod

MeOH

DPPH

37.57 μM

Sudan

[189]

Acalypha marginata Spreng.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

29/89 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Achillea millefolium L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

58.11/51.2 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Adansonia digitata L.

Malvaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

13%

Sudan

[191]

Adhatoda vasica Nees.

Acauthaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/13 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Adhatoda vasica Nees.

Acanthaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Ajuga iva (L.) Schreb.

Lamiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

486.60 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Albezzia anthelmintica Benth.

Loganiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

20/49 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Albezzia stipulate (DC.) Bovin.

Mimosaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

1/18 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Albizzia anthelmintica Benth.

Mimosaceae

-

EtOH

SOCA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Alhagi maurorum Medik.

Leguminosae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.47 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Aloe vera L.

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Juice

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Alternanthera versicolor Forssk.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0.5/71 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Althaea rosea Hohen.

Malvaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

19/58 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Amaranthus tricolor L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

1/0 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Anabasis articulata L.

Chenopodiaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

40/42% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Anacyclus clavatus Pers.

Asteraceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

27.20 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Anacyclus pyrethrum L (DC).

Asteraceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

26.3 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Anastatica hierochuntica L.

Brassicaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

150.85 μg/mL

Egypt

[195]

Anogeisus leiocarpus (DC.) Guill. & Perr.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

FRAP

92%

Sudan

[196]

Anthorium scherzerianum Schott.

Araceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

14/37 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Antigonon leptopus Hook & Arm.

Polygonaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

89%

Sudan

[197]

Arbutus Pavarii Pamp.

Ericaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

4.55 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Arbutus unedo L.

Ericaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

3.8/4.2 μg/mL

Algeria

[199]

Argemone mexicana L.

Papaveraceae

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Aristolochia bracteolata L.

Aristolochiaceae

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Artemisia absinthium L.

Compositae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.89 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Artemisia annua L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

37.97/49.6 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Arum palaestinum Boiss.

Araceae

Leaf

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

12/43% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Asparagus plumosus Baker.

Liliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/16 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Asparagus setaceus Jessop.

Liliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

5/15 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Asparagus stipularis Rch. D.

Liliaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

72/70% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Asphodelus microcarpus Rch. D.

Liliaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

60/49% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Aspidistra lurida Ker Gawl.

Convallariaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/39 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Astragalus pinosus L.

Leguminosae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

28/19% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Atriplex halimus L.

Chenopodiaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

70/50% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Balanites aegyptiaca Delile.

Balanitaceae

Bark

EtOH

SORSA

72% at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Balanites aegyptiaca Delile.

Balanitaceae

Seed

Oil

 

17%

Sudan

[200]

Bauhenia variegata

Leguminosae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

18/94 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Bauhinia alba Buch.

Caesalpiniaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

74.32/25.29 μg/mL

Egypt

[201]

Beta vulgaris L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

0.5/22/0.48 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Beta vulgaris L.

Amaranthaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

41/30% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Bombax malabaricum DC.

Bombacaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2/96 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Boswellia sacra Flueck.

Burseraceae

Gum

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Bougainvillea glabra Choisy.

Nyctaginaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

20/50 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Bougainvillea pixie-pink

Nyctaginaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

22/39 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Bougainvillea spectabilis Wild.

Nyctaginaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

12/38 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Brachichton acerifolium

Sterculiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

16/22 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Brassica nigra W.D.J. Koch.

Brassicaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

32.82 μML

Sudan

[189]

Brassica nigra W.D.J. Koch.

Brassicaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Brassica rapa L.

Brassicaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Buddleia davidii Franch

Loganiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

10/50 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Buddleja rufescens

Caesalpiniodeae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

81% at 500 μg/mL

Sudan

[203]

Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Sw.

Loganiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

25/27 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cakile maritime Scop.

Cruciferae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

58/55% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Calendula officinalis L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

22.08/2.60 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Calendula officinalis L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.67 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Calicotome spinosa L.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

29.20 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Calicotome villosa Poir.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

ß-CLAMS

29.8 μg/mL

Tunisia.

[204]

Caliistemon lanceolatus (Curtis) Dum.Cours.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

23/78 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Calliandra haematocephala Hassk.

Mimosaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

10/23 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Camellia sinensis (L). Kuntze.

Theaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

17.044 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Camellia sinensis (L). Kuntze.

Theaceae

Leaf

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

85/70% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Camellia sinensis (L). Kuntze.

Theaceae

Leaf

Tea

DPPH

3.0 μg/mL

Algeria

[205]

Capparis Spinosa L.

Capparidaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

57.75 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Capsicum annuum L.

Solanaceae

Fruit

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

57/25% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Capsicum annuum L.

Solanaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

90/81% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Capsicum frutescens L.

Solanaceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

0.69/22.2/0.57 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Carissa grandiflora A.DC.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2/0 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cassia acutifolia L.

Fabaceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

0.58/39/0.59 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Cassia didymobotrya Delile.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

19.5/12 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cassia fistula L.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

21.6/45 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cassia fistula L.

Fabaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

75 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Cassia nigricans Vahl.

Caesalpinaceae

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Cassia senna L.

Ceasalpiniaceae

Ieaf

MeOH

DPPH

33.56 μM

Sudan

[189]

Centaurea calcitrapa L.

Asteraceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

231.70 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Ceratonia siliqua L.

Fabaceae

Pod

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

7.7/9.7%

Morocco

[206]

Cestrum diurnum ex Dunal.

Solonaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

30/20 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Chrysanthemum frutesence (L.) Sch. Bip.

Compositae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/87 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Chrysanthemum red L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15.53 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cistanche phelypaea L.

Orobanchaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

50/85% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Cistus incanus L.

Cistaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

17.75 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Cistus Parviflorus Gaterau.

Cistaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

4.75 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Citrullus colocynthis (L) Schrad.

Cucurbitaceae

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Citrus limon (L) Osbeck

Rutaceae

Fruit

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

91/70% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. F. ex Planach.

Cochlospermaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH/FRAP

01.83/06.50 mg/mL

Egypt

[207]

Colocasia antiquorum Schott.

Araceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

0.49/49.7/0.27 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Combretum aculeatum Vent.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

FRAP

98%

Sudan

[196]

Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf.

Combretaceae

Leaf

EtOH/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

146/14/967 μg/mL

Sudan

[208]

Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

RSA/FRAP

86/11%

Sudan

[208]

Combretum hartmannianum Schweinf.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

FRAP

99%

Sudan

[196]

Conocarpus erectus L.

Combretaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/45 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Coratonia siliqua L.

Loganiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

1.5/40 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cordia africana Lam.

Boraginaceae

Leaf/Stem bark/Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

80/88/74/37%

Sudan

[209]

Cordia sebestena Andrew.

Boraginaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/42 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cordyline fruticosa Gopp.

Laxmamiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

18/21 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Crinum longifolium L.

Amaryllidaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

6/21 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Br.

Asclpiadaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/35 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cucurbita maxima Duchesne.

Cucurbitaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

38%

Sudan

[191]

Cucurbita pepo Vell.

Cucurbitaceae

Leaf

MeOH/H2O

DPPH

>0.19 mg/mL

Algeria

[210]

Cupressus sempervirens L.

Cupressaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

6/65 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cupressus sempervirens L.

Cupressacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

29.20 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.

Poaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

24.79/2.7 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Cymbopogon citratus Stapf.

Poaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

30.64 μM

Sudan

[189]

Cymbopogon schoenanthus Spreng.

Poaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

34.28 μML

Sudan

[189]

Cynara scolymus L.

Asteraceae

Rizhome

MeOH/flavonoid

DPPH

17.7/13.3 μg/mL

Libya

[211]

Cyperus alternifolius Stend.

Cyperaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2/31 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Cypressus macrocarpa

Cupressaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/49 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Datura arborea L.

Solonaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

17/56 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Daucus carota L.

Umbelliferae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

85/81% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Derris rubosta (Roxb. ex DC.) Benth.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

138/294 μg/mL

Egypt

[201]

Didonia viscose Jacq.

Sapindaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/90 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Dracaena fragrans Ker Gawl.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/33 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Dracaena marginata L.

Agavaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/13 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Duranta repens L.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

16/44 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Eichhornia azurea K

Pontederiaceae

Fruit

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

54/50% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Elaeagnus macrophylla Thunb.

Elaeagnaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

45/8 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Emblica officinalis Gaetn.

Euphorbiaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

63 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Erica arborea L.

Ericaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

5.7/6.8 μg/mL

Algeria

[199]

Erica multiflora L.

Ericaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

10.2/9.0 μg/mL

Algeria

[199]

Eucalyptus globules Labill.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/H2O2

--

Algeria

[212]

Eucalyptus rostrata Cav.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

9/90 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Eugenia uniflora L.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

13/16 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Euonymus japonicus Thunb.

Celastraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/66 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Euphorbia paralias L.

Euphorbiaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

81/51% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Euphorbia serrata L.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

40 μg/mL

Libya

[213]

Euphorbia splendens Bojer ex Hook.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

5.5/31 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ferula assafoetida L.

Apiaceae

Gum

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Ficus alii L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

1/3 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus benjamina L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2/3 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus carica L.

Moracea

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

84/80% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Ficus carica L.

Moraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

113.30 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Ficus elastica Roxb.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

11.5/41 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus enfictoria L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3.5/31 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus hawaii L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/25 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus natalensis Hochst.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

5/16 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus nitida Miq.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

5/25 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus religiosa L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/24 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ficus vasta Forss K.

Moraceae

Leaf

MeOH

RSA/Iron chelating

88/03%

Sudan

[208]

Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

Apiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

46/16 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Fraxinus latifolia Benth.

Oleaceae

Leaf

EtOH

OH

79.76 μg/mL

Algeria

[214]

Gazania splendens Hort. Angl

Compositae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/89 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Geigeria alata Benth & Hook. F.

Asteraceae

-

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Globularia alypum L.

Globulariaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

39.30 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Globularia alypum L.

Globulariaceae

Leaf

MeOH/H2O/EtOAc

DPPH

33.32/36.12/38.29 μg/mL

Algeria

[215]

Globularia Arabica Jaub & Spach.

Globulariaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

7.65 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Glycyrrhiza glabra L.

Galegeae

Seed

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

47/84% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Grass L.

Poaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

5/30 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Guiera senegalensis Lam.

Combretaceae

Leaf

MeOH

RSA/Iron chelating

90/05%

Sudan

[208]

Hammada scoparia (Pomel) IIjin.

Chenopodiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

8 μg/mL

Libya

[211]

Helianthemum lippii Mill.

Cistaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/OH

58.98/324.84 μg/mL

Algeria

[216]

Helianthemum lippii Mill.

Cistaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

45.2 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Helianthus annuus L.

Asteraceae

Seed

Oil

DPPH

52%

Sudan

[200]

Helychrysum stoechas L.

Asteraceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

46.30 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Herniaria glabra Mill.

Caropllaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

332.5 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Hibiscus mutabilic L.

Malvaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/40 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Malvaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

5.62 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Hibiscus sabdariffa L.

Malvaceae

Calyces

MeOH

DPPH

33.24 μM

Sudan

[189]

Hydnora abyssinica A. Braun.

Hydnoraceae

Leaf

EtOH

SORSA

59% at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Hydnora abyssinica A. Braun.

Hydnoraceae

Rhizome

MeOH

RSA/Iron chelating

77/02%

Sudan

[208]

Hydrangea red L.

Saxifragaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

4/29 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Hyoscyamus albus L.

Rhamnacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

60 μg/mL

Libya

[213]

Hyphaene thebaica Mark.

Arecacea

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Inula viscosa L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH, ABTS/H2O2

-

Algeria

[217]

Jacarandas acutifolia L.

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

18/55 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Jasminum grandiflorum L.

Oleaceae

Flower

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

14.35/10.2%

Morocco

[206]

Jasminum grandiflorum L.

Oleaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

39/52 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Jasminum primulinum ex Baker.

Oleaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

6/30 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Jatropha curcas L.

Euphorbiaceae

Root/Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

0.048/0.063

Egypt

[218]

Jatropha integerrima Jacq.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

13/10 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Jatropha multifidal L.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

47/17 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Khaya senegalensis A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

13/86 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Khaya senegalensis A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Leaf

EtOH

SORSA

71% at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Kigelia pinnata DC.

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/0 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Kochia indica Wight.

Chenopodiaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

50/72% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Lagerstroemia indica L.

Lythraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

28/89 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Lantana camara L.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

12/32 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Lantana montevidensis Briq.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

11/30 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

18.93/18.61%

Morocco

[206]

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

49/89 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Laurus nobilis L.

Lauraceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH, ABTS/H2O2

-

Algeria

[217]

Lavandula angustifolia Mill.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2.6/36 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Lepidium sativum

Brassicaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

33.61 μM

Sudan

[189]

Leucophyllum frutescens

Scrophulariaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

16.4/31 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk.

Oleaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

9/11 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Limoniastrum monopetalum Boiss.

Plumaginaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

85/82% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Lonicera japonica Thunb.

Caprifoliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

5/16 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Lotas polyphyllus E.D. Clarke

Leguminosae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

27/27% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Luffa aegyptiaca Mill.

Curcubitaceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

1.19/17.9/0.75 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Majorana hortensis Moench.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

69.73/63.6 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Marrubium vulgare L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.43 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Marrubium vulgare L.

Lamiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

84.20 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Matricaria chamomilla L.

Compositae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

2.15 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Matricaria chmomilla L.

Asteraceae

Flower

MeOH

DPPH

91.69% at 50 μg/mL

Sudan

[188]

Matricaria recutita L.

Asteraceae

Flower

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

0.67/5.97%

Morocco

[206]

Melia azedarach L.

Meliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2/32 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Melilotus officinalis Pall.

Fabaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Mentha pulegium L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/ABTS

42.7/30.2

Algeria

[219]

Mentha pulegium L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOAc

DPPH

1.7 μg/mL

Algeria

[220]

Mentha rotundifolia Sole.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/ABTS

71.3/40.4 μg/mL

Algeria

[219]

Mentha spicata Crantz.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/ABTS

16. 2/10.3 μg/mL

Algeria

[219]

Moricandia nitens L.

Cruciferae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

89/85% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Moringa pterygosperma Gaertn.

Moringaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/30 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Morus alba L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

14/40 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Myoporum pictum Banks & Sol. Ex G. Forst.

Myoporaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

42.7/26 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Myrtus communis Blanco.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

19.04 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Myrtus Communis Blanco.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

26.6/90 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Myrtus communis L.

Myrtaceae

Aerial parts

Oil

DPPH

6018 μg/mL

Algeria

[221]

Narcissus tazetta L.

Oleaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

22/40 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Nephrlepis bostoniensis L.

Polypodiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

16/43 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Nerium oleander L.

Apocyanaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

3.15 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Nerium oleander L.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

19/31 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Nerium oleander L.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

64.5 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Nicotiana glauca L.

Solanaceae

Leaf

EtOH/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

54/13/30 μg/mL

Sudan

[193]

Nigella sativa L.

Ranunculaceae

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Nigella sativa L.

Ranunculaceae

Seed

EtOH

DPPH

60%

Sudan

[222]

Nigella sativa L.

Ranunculaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Nigella sativa L.

Ranunculaceae

Seed

Oil

DPPH

85%

Sudan

[200]

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

Bark

EtOH

SORSA

66% at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

Seed

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

72/9.8% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Ocimum basillcum L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

0.21/53.0/0.19 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Olea europaea (Wall. Ex G. Don) Cif.

Oleaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

50/81% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Olen europaea (Wall. Ex G. Don) Cif.

Oleaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

8.08 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Origanum glandulosum Salzm.

Lamiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

12.80 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Origanum majorana L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.859 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Origanum syriacum L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

55.7/25.39

Egypt

[190]

Panax quinquefolius L.

Araliaceae

Seed

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

11/56% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Parkinsonia aculeata L.

Loganiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

17/9 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Peganum harmala L.

Zygophyllaceae

Not stated

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Peganum harmala L.

Zygophyllaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Peganum harmala L.

Zygophyllaceae

Seed

MeOH

H2O2

3.33 mg/mL

Algeria

[223]

Peganum harmala L.

Zygophyllaceae

Seed

MeOH/H2O

DPPH

0.194/1.345 mg/mL

Algeria

[224]

Pelargonium oderatissimum L.

Geraniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

9/89 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Pelargonium zonale L Her.

Geraniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

12/32 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Phagnalon rupestre Dc.

Compositae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

3.88 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Phalangium variegate L.

Liliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/17 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Phoenix dactylifera L.

Palmaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

83/77% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Pinus halipensis Miller.

Pinaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

115.50 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Piper nigrum Wall.

Piperaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Pistacia atlantica Desf.

Anacardiaceae

Gall

Oil

DPPH/ABTS/FRAP

417.61/495.6/0.115 μg/mL

Algeria

[225]

Pistacia lentiscus L.

Anacardiaceae

Leaf

EtOAc

DPPH/OH

6.8/8.2 μg/mL.

Algeria

[226]

Pistacia lentiscus L.

Anacardiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

4.30 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Pithecellobium dulce Benth.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

11/23 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Alton.

Pittosporaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

11/9 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Pituranthos tortousus (Coss.) Maire.

Apiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.46 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Pituranthos tortusous (Coss.) Maire.

Umbelliferae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

58/81% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Plantago major Elliot.

Plantaginaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

48.00 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Plumeria alba L.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

28/15 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Poinciana regia Bojer.

Caesalpiniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/15 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Polianthes tuberose L.

Agavaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

8/12 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Populus tremula L.

Salicaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

88.70 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Psidium guajava L.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

97/88% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Punica granatum L.

Punicaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

9/96 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Punica granatum L.

Punicaceaea

Fruit

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

85/75% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Quercus Coccifera L.

Fagaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

18.65 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Quercus robur L.

Fagaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

20.63 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Raphanus raphanistrum L.

Cruciferae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.47 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Retama raetam Webb & Berthel.

Leguminosae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

80/78% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Retama raetem Webb & Berthel.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

40 μg/mL

Libya

Alghazeer et al., 2012

Rhamnus alaternus L.

Rhamnaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

54.16 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Rhamnus alaternus L.

Rhamnaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

40.7 μg/mL

Algeria

[198]

Rheum palmaum

Polygonaceae

Stem

MeOH

DPPH

14.2 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

90.57% at 50 μg/mL

Sudan

[188]

Ricinus communis L.

Euphorbiaceae

Seed

Oil

DPPH

51%

Sudan

[200]

Rosa banksiae R. Br.

Rosaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

25/42 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

+

Algeria

[227]

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.51 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

28.6/31 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

69.73/70.6 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

38/65% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Rosmarinus officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

19.4 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Rubus idaeus Thunb.

Rosaceae

Leaf

EtOAc

DPPH

4.80 μg/mL

Algeria

[228]

Ruscus hyphoglossum L.

Liliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/42 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Russelia juncea Zucc.

Scrophulariaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

17/30 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Ruta graveolens L.

Rutaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.60 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Ruta graveolens L.

Rutaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

61 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Salix alba Thunb.

Salicaceae

Cortex

MeOH

DPPH

15.50 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Salvia officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.81 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Salvia officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

45/49 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Salvia officinalis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH, ABTS/H2O2

-

Algeria

[217]

Salvia triloba L.

Lamiaceae

Aerial Parts

MeOH

DPPH

20.7 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Sanseviera guineenses Thunb.

Liliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

23.5/18 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Santolina chamaecyparissus L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

H2O/MeOH

β-CLAM

64%/61% at 50 μg/mL

Algeria

[229]

Santolina chamaecyparissus L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

11/46 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Satureja thymbra L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

Oil

DPPH

0.0967 mg/mL

Libya

[230]

Schefflera actinophylla Harms.

Araliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/94 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Schefflera arboricola Hayata.

Araliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

2/0 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Schinus terebentifolius Raddi.

Anacardiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

15/12 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Sciadophyllum pulchrima L.

Araliaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

1.5/18 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Sesamum indicum L.

Pedaliaceae

Seed

Oil

DPPH

34%

Sudan

[200]

Sesbania aegyptiaca Pers.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

17/43 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Solanum lycopersicum L.

Solanaceae

Bark

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

82/82% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Solanum nigrum L.

Solanaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

85/55% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Solanum rantonnetii Carriere.

Solanaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

162/239 μg/mL

Egypt

[201]

Solenostemma argel Hayne.

Apocyanaceae

Leaf

Cold H2O/hot H2O/MeOH

DPPH

0.61/33.3/0.43 mg/mL

Egypt

[202]

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

EtOH

SORSA

56 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Spathodea tilotica P.Beauv.

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

19/85 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Sterculia diversifolia L.

Sterculiaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

14/88 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Strelitzia reginae Banks.

Streliziaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

32/45 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Striga hermonthica Delile.

Orobanchaceae

Whole plant

MeOH

RSA/Iron chelating

29/23%

Sudan

[208]

Sysimbrium officinalis (L.) Scop.

Brassicaceae

Flower

MeOH

DPPH

145.0 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Syzgium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

20.49 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merrill & Perry.

Myrtaceae

Pud

MeOH

DPPH

15.9 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Tabernaemontana divaricata G. Don.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

40/44 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Tecoma capensis Lindl.

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/55 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Tecomaria capensis Thunb.

Bignoniaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

9/90 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Tephrosia apollinea Klotzsch.

Papilionaceae

-

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Tephrosia apollinea Klotzsch.

Leguminosae

Aerial parts

n-C6H12/EtOH/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

>1000/120/48/2835 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Terminalia arjuna Roxb.ex DC.

Combretaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

27/42 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Terminalia arjuna Roxb.ex DC.

Combretaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

3.1 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Terminalia chebula Retz.

Combretaceae

Fruit

MeOH

DPPH

2.2 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Teucrium polium Decne. ex C. Presl.

Lamiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

30.20 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Teucrium polium Decne. ex C. Presl.

Lamiaceae

Aerial parts

MeOH

DPPH

96.4 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Teucrium polium Decne.ex C. Presl.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.22 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Thapsia garganica L.

Apiaceae

Root/Leaf/Flower

MeOH

DPPH

9.98/10.08/19.32 mg/100 mL

Algeria

Yasmine et al., 2012

Thapsia garganica L.

Apiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

50 μg/mL

Libya

Alghazeer et al., 2012

Thapsia garganica L.

Apiaceae

Leaf

MeOH/EtOH

DPPH

91.92% 79.60%

Algeria.

[231]

Thevetia narifolia L.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

26/29 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Thuja orientalis L.

Cupressaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

0/71 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Thymelaea hirsute Mill.

Thymelaeaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

76/35% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Thymelaea microphylla Coss & Durieu.

Thymelaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

77.86%

Algeria

[224]

Thymus vulgaris M. Bieb.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.949 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Thymus vulgaris M. Bieb.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH/TBA

96.85/70.8 at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[190]

Tinospora bakis Miers.

Menispermaceae

Leaf

EtOH

SORSA

54% at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Tradescantea spp

Commelinaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

44/0 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Tradescantea zebrine (Schinz) D.R. Hunt.

Commelinaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

1/16 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Trigonella foenum-graecum Suter.

Fabaceae

Seed

H2O

DPPH/ABTS

9.23/13.27%

Morocco

[206]

Trigonella foenum-graecum Suter.

Fabaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

90.94% at 50 μg/mL

Sudan

[188]

Trigonella foenum-graecum Suter.

Fabaceae

Seed

MeOH

DPPH

37.32 μML

Sudan

[189]

Ulmus campestris L.

Ulmaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

61.50 μg/mL

Algeria

[193]

Urgininea maritima (L.) Stearn.

Liliaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.72 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Urtica urens L.

Urticaceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

0.36 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Vernonia amygdalina Delile.

Asteraceae

-

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Vinca rossea (L.) G. Don.

Apocynaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

9/48 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Vitex trifolia L.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

22/89 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Vitis vinifera L.

Vitaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

90/85% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Xanthium brasilicum Vell.

Asteraceae

-

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Ximenia Americana L.

Olacaceae

-

EtOH

SORSA

<50 at 1 μg/mL

Sudan

[45]

Yucca desmetiana Baker.

Agavaceae

Leaf

CHCl3/MeOH

DPPH

3/6 at 50 μg/mL

Egypt

[42]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Zingiberceae

Leaf

H2O

DPPH

1.08 mmol TEAC/g

Libya

[194]

Zingiber officinale Roscoe.

Zingiberaceae

Rhizome

MeOH

DPPH

>100 μg/mL

Egypt

[192]

Ziziphus spina-christi Georgi.

Rhamnaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

91.13% at 50 μg/mL

Sudan

[188]

Zygophulum simplex L.

Zygophyllaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

85/44% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Zygophyllum album L.

Zygophyllaceae

Aerial parts

Oil

DPPH

615 μg/mL

Algeria

[221]

Zygophyllum album L.

Zygophyllaceae

Whole plant

EtOH/H2O

DPPH

80/64% at 100 μg/mL

Egypt

[41]

Zygophyllum coccineum L

Zygophyllaceae

Leaf

n-C6H12

DPPH

10.80 ± 0.3%

Egypt

[232]

Key: RSA: Radical scavenging activity; RC: Reducing power capacity; OH: Hydroxyl ion; NO: Nitric oxide radical inhibition; H2O2: Hydrogen peroxide inhibition activity; LPO: Lipid peroxidation inhibition activity; ABTS+: 2,2′-azinobis-3–ethylbenzothiozolin-6–sulfonic acid cation decolourization test; ß-CLAMS: ß-Carotene-linoleic acid model system; SORSA: Superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (SORSA);MLP: Microsomal lipid peroxydation; FRAP: Fe2+ chelating ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties; DPPH: 1,1–dipheyl-2–picry-hydrazyl; ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance capacity; TEAC: Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity;MeOH: Methanol; CH2Cl2: Dichloromethane; EtOH: Ethanol; EtOAc: Ethyl acetate; n-C6H12: Hexane; (CH3) 2CO: Acetone; H2O: Aqueous; BtOH: Butanol

Table 3

Antioxidants activities of Southern AfricaAfrican plants

Plants

Family

Part used

Solvents

Assay Methods

Inhibition/EC50

Country of origine

References

Acacia galpinii Butt Davy.

Fabaceae

Bark

EtOH

DPPH

16.05 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Acokanthera oppositifolia Lan.

Apocynaceae

Stem

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

99.0% at 0.08 mg/mL and 70% at 1 mg/mL

South Africa

[233]

Adenia gummifera Harms.

Passifloraceae

Root

EtOAc

AChE

0.0189 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Adenia gummifera Harms.

Passifloraceae

Stem

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

94.2 at 0.08 mg/mL and 60% at 1 mg/mL

South Africa

[233]

Aloe arborescens Mill.

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Aloe barbadensis Mill.

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Aloe ferox Mill.

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Aloe ferox Mill.

Asphodelaceae

Leaf

EtOH/(CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

0.086/0.288/0.288/0.517 mg/mL.

South Africa

[235]

Bauhinia bowkeri Harv.

Fabaceae

Leaf

n-C6H12/CH2Cl2

DPPH.

11.147/5.21 μg/mL

South Africa

[236]

Bauhinia galpinii N. E. Br.

Fabaceae

Leaf

n-C6H12/CH2Cl2

DPPH

79.58/9.92 μg/mL

South Africa

[236]

Bauhinia petersiana Bolle.

Fabaceae

Leaf

n-C6H12/CH2Cl2

DPPH

47.45/8.18 μg/mL

South Africa

[236]

Bauhinia variegata Linn.

Fabaceae

Leaf

n-C6H12/CH2Cl2

DPPH

97.02/8.40 μg/mL

South Africa

[236]

Heteromorpha trifoliate (Spreng.) Cham & Schltdl.

Apiaceae

Leaf

CO(CH3)2

DPPH

4.35 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Indigofera frutescens L.

Papilionaceae

Leaf

CO(CH3)2

DPPH

0 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb) Harv.

Rutaceae

Leaf

CO(CH3)2

DPPH

4.0 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Milletia grandis (E.Mey.) Skeels.

Papilionaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

4.6 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Brachylaena discolor DC.

Asteraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

2.6 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Clerodendrum glabrum E. Mey.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

3.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Strychnos mitis S. Moore.

Strychnaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

3.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Cyathea dregei Kunze.

Cyatheaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

3.0 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Apodytes dimidiate E. Mey. ex Arn.

Icacinaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

3.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Melia azedarach L.

Meliaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

3.3 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Clausena anisata (Wild.) Hook.f. ex Benth.

Rutaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

2.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Maesa lanceolata Forssk.

Maesaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

1.4 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.

Rosaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

0.0 mg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Viscum album L.

Viscaceae

Leaf

MeOH

Fe2+

10 mg/mL

Nigeria

[238]

Ficus capreifolia Delile.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.34 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus cordata Thunb.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.27 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus craterostoma Mildbr. & Burret.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.66 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus glumosa Delile

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

1.29 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus lutea Vahl.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

4.80 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus natalensis Hochst.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.69 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus polita Vahl.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.31 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus religiosa L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.59 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus sycomorus L.

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

1.91 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Ficus thonningii Blume

Moraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

ABTS

0.77 TEAC

South Africa

[239]

Peltophorum africanum Sond.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

4.67 μg/mL

South Africa

[240]

Zanthoxylum capense (Thunb.) Harv.

Rutaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

138.78 μg/mL

South Africa

[240]

Clausena anisata (Wild.) Hook.f. ex Benth.

Rutaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

119.36 μg/mL

South Africa

[240]

Sutherlandia frutescens (L.) R. Br.

Fabaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

+++

South Africa

[241]

Senna italic Mill.

Fabaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH

++

South Africa

[242]

Combretum vendee

Combretecacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

+

South Africa

[243]

Rhoicissus tridentate Wild & Drum

Vitaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

2.5 TEAC

South Africa

[244]

Baphia racemosa (Hochst) Baker.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

210.69/195.10 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Crotalaria capensis Jacq.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

195.26/207.09 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Erythrina caffra Thunb.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

268.6/173.28 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Lonchocarpus nelsii (Schinz) Heering & Grimme.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

247.70/134.64 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Virgilia divaricata Adamson.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

271.58/150.57 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Indigofera cylindrical L.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

22.31/41.39 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Xylia torreana Brenan.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

16.90/14.56 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Podalyria calyptrata (Retz.) Willd.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

35.21/36.66 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Dalbergia nitidula Baker.

Fabaceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2

DPPH/ABTS

9.31/21.30 μg/mL

South Africa

[245]

Maytenus peduncularis (Sond) Loes.

Celastraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12

DPPH/ABTS/OH

1.88/8.65/23.92 μg/mL

South Africa

[246]

Maytenus procumbens (L.f.) Loes.

Celastraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12

DPPH/ABTS/OH

3.56/4.03/107.69 μg/mL

South Africa

[246]

Maytenus senegalensis (Lam.) Exell.

Celastraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12

DPPH/ABTS/OH

6.71/5.34/146.30 μg/mL

South Africa

[246]

Maytenus undata (Thunb)

Celastraceae

Leaf

CO (CH3)2; n-C6H12

DPPH/ABTS/OH

3.89/7.89/80.68 μg/mL

South Africa

[246]

Eriosema robustum Baker.

Fabaceae

Twig

EtOH

DPPH

1.84 mg/mL

South Africa

[247]

Mormodica balsamina L.

Cucurbitaleae

Aerial parts

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

200 μg/mL

South Africa

[248]

Senna italica Mill.

Fabaceae

Aerial parts

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

120 μg/mL

South Africa

[248]

Cassia abbreviata Oliv.

Fabaceae

Stem bark

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

<7.8 μg/mL

South Africa

[248]

Waltheria indica L.

Malvaceae

Aerial parts

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

80 μg/mL

South Africa

[248]

Tinospora fragosa (I. Verd.) I. Verd & Troupin

Menispermaceae

Aerial parts

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

430 μg/mL

South Africa

[248]

Gymnospora buxifolia (Eckl. & Zeyl.) Loes.

Celastraceae

Aerial parts

CO (CH3)2

DPPH

40 μg/mL

South Africa

[248]

Combretum apiculatum Sond.

Combretaceae

Leaf

EtOAc/BtOH

DPPH

3.91/2.44 μg/mL

South Africa

[249]

Aloe sessiliflora Pole- Evams.

Xanthorrhoeaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Amaranthus asper

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O

DPPH/ABTS

72.5, 53.5 and 46.0%/96.5, 61.8 and 79.1% at 0.05 mg/mL

South Africa

[250]

Amaranthus dubius Mart. ex Thell.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

App 50/75%

South Africa

[48]

Amaranthus spinosus L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

0.16 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Anchusa capensis Thunb.

Boraginacee

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Annona senegalensis Pers.

Annonaceae

Bark

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Apodytes dimidiate E. Mey. Exarn

Icacinaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

3.5 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Arbutus unedo L.

Ericaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Aspalathus linearis (N.L.Burm.) R. Dahlgr.

Leguminosae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

3.5 ± 0.5 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Barleria albostellata C.B. Clarke.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Barleria repens Nees.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Berkheya setifera DC.

Asteraceae

Corn

MeOH

DPPH/H2O2

2 335/55 μg/mL

Lesotho

[251]

Bidens Pilosa L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

95.7, 94.2, 91.7%, at 1 mg/mL

South Africa

[252]

Bidens pilosa L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

12.10/0.057 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Brachylaena discolor DC.

Asteraceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

2.6 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Broussonetia papyrifera L.

Moraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Buxus macowanii Oliv.

Buxaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze

Theaceae

Tea

MeOH

DPPH/H2O2

1 440/75 μg/mL

Lesotho

[251]

Carpobrotus edulis L.

Mesembryanthemaceae

Leaf

H2O/EtOH

DPPH/ABTS/NO

0.018 and 0.016/0.020 and 0.022/0.05 and 0.023 mg/mL,

South Africa

[253]

Carpobrotus edulis L.

Azioaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Cassia abbreviate Oliv.

Caesalpinioidaeae

Bark/Leaf/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

86/85/85%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Celtis Africana Burm. F.

Ulmaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH

64.95/89.69% at 0.1 mg/mL

South Africa

[254]

Ceratonia siliqua L.

Leguminosae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Chenopodium album L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

62.4, 87.2 and 81.7% at 1 mg/mL

South Africa

[252]

Chenopodium album L.

Chenopodiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

App 60/70%

South Africa

[48]

Clausena anisaa (Wild.) Hook. F. ex Benth.

Rutaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

2.5 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Clerodendrum glabrum E. May.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

3.5 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Combretum apiculatum Sond.

Combretaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

1.6 ± 0.02 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Combretum molle R. Br. ex G. Don.

Combretaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

9.83 ± 0.8 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Corchorus olitarius Engl & Diels.

Tiliaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

17.11/0.04 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Cotyledon orbiculata L.

Crassulaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Crinum bulbispermum (Burm.f) MilneRedhead & Schweick.

Amaryllidaceae

Root

EtOAc

AChE

0.0393 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Cryptocarya woodii Engl.

Lauraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Cyathea dregei Kuntze.

Cyatheaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

3.0 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Dahlia imperialis Roezl.

Asteraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Datura stramonium Wall.

Solanaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn.

Leguminosae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Dichrostachys cinerea Wight & Arn.

Mimosaceae

Leaf/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

88/27%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Diospyros lycioides Desf.

Ebenaceae

Twig

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Dodonaea viscose Mart.

Sapindaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Elaedendron matabelicum

Celastraceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH.

87%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Elephantorrhiza goetzei Harns.

Leguminosae

Root

MeOH

DPPH.

85%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Erythrophleum lasianthum Corbishley.

Leguminosae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Euclea divinorum Hiern.

Ebenaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Euclea natalensis A.Dc

Ebenaceae

Root

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Felicia muricata Nees.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH/(CH3) 2CO/EtOH

DPPH

70/410/120 μg/mL

South Africa

[173]

Flacourtia indica Merr.

Flacourticaceae

Leaf/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

94/82%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Galenia africana L.

Aizoaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

90.92 ± 1.2 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

 

Asclepiadacae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Gomphocarpus fruticosus R. Br.

Greyiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Greyia flanaganii Bolus.

Greyiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

7.9 ± 0.23 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Greyia sutherlandii Hook & Harv.

Celastraceae

Leaf/Root/Twig

MeOH

DPPH.

90/96/87%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Gymnosporia senegalensis Loes.

Anacardiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

2.6 ± 0.21 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Harpephyllum caffrum Bernh. Ex C. Krauss.

Apiaceae

Leaf

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

4.36 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Heteromorpha trifoliate Eckl & Zeyh.

Myrtaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Heteropyxis natalensis

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Hyaenanche globosa Lamb.

Hydnoraceae

Leaf

MeOH

NO/DPPH/ABTS

60%/80%/95% at 0.05 mg/mL

South Africa

[255]

Hydnora Africana Thunb.

Hypoxidaceae

Tuber

MeOH

DPPH.

86%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch.

Papilionaceae

Leaf

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

0 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Indigofera frutescens L.F.

Meliaceae

Bark/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

96/87%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Khaya anthotheca C. DC.

Bignoniaceae

Bark/Fruit/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

81/85/45%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth.

Ranunculaceae

Root

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Knowltonia vesicatoria Sims.

Anacardiaceae

Root

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

0.0036/0.0151 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Lannea schweinfurthii Engl.

Rosaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

0.0 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.

Rosaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/H2O2

850/68 μg/mL

Lesotho

[251]

Leucosidea sericea Eckl. & Zeyh.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

14.62/0.015 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Lippia javanica Spreng.

Maesaceae

Leaf

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

1.4 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Maesa lanceolata G. Don.

Magnoliaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

South Africa

[46]

Magnolia grandiflora ex Dc.

Meliaceae

Leaf

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

3.3 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Melia azedarach Blanco.

Papilionaceae

Leaf

(CH3) 2CO

DPPH

4.6 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Millettia grandis Jkeel.

Myrsinaceae

Stalk

EtOH

DPPH

South Africa

[46]

Myrsine Africana L.

Chrysobalanaceae

Bark

EtOH

DPPH

South Africa

[46]

Parinari curatellifolia Planch. ex Benth.

Geraniaceae

Leaf/Root

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

100%/90% at 0.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[256]

Pelargonium reniforme Spreng.

Geraniaceae

Leaf/Root

MeOH

ABTS

100% at 0.025 mg/mL

South Africa

[256]

Pelargonium reniforme Spreng.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

19.8% at 2.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[257]

Philenoptera violacea Klotz sch.

Piperaceae

Root

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

0.040/0.044 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Piper capense L.F.

Polygalaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH

20% at 2500 μg/mL

Lesotho

[251]

Polygala virgate Vell.

Ranunculaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

24.7 ± 2.05 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Ranunculus repens Watson.

Anacardiaceae

Leaf/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

96/96%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Rhus chirindensis Baker.

Anacardiacae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

South Africa

[46]

Rhus lancea L.f.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH/n-C6H12/CH2Cl2/(CH3) 2CO

ABTS

784/629.3/573.6 and 544.6 \( \mu \)g/mL

South Africa

[258]

Ricinus communis L.

Polygonaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO/MeOH/H2O

DPPH

72.1, 97.7,85.3%

South Africa

[259]

Rumex ecklonianus Meisn.

Amaryllidaceae

Bulb

EtOAc

AChE

0.0003 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Scadoxus puniceusL.

Fabaceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS/H2O2/LO/NO

87.5%,89.47%,77.15%, 86.48% and 77.75% at 0.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[260]

Schotia latifolia Jacq.

Anacardiaceae

Bark

EtOH

DPPH

2.06 ± 0.03 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Sclerocarya birrea Hochst.

Anacardiaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH.

89%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Sclerocarya birrea

Polygalaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH.

93%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Securidaca longepedunculata Fresen.

Sapotaceae

Bark

EtOH

DPPH

South Africa

[46]

Sideroxylon inerme L.

Solanaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

App 35/60%

South Africa

[48]

Solanum nigrum L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

ABTS/DPPH

97.8%/85.6 at 1 mg/mL

South Africa

[261]

Sonchus asper Hill.

Asteraceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

ABTS/DPPH

99.4%/56.1% at 1 mg/mL

South Africa

[261]

Sonchus oleraceus L.

Menispermaceae

Stem bark

MeOH

SOD/H2O2

13.11/30.04 μg/mL

South Africa

[80]

Sphenocentrum jollyanum Pierre.

Loganiaceae

Bark

H2O

DPPH/H2O2/ABTS/NO

0.739/0.023/0.089/0.49 mg/mL

South Africa

[262]

Strychnos henningsiib Gilg.

Strychnaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

3.5 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Strychnos mitis S. Moore.

Boraginaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

-

South Africa

[46]

Symphytum officinale

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

13.99./0.012 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Tagetes minuta L.

Cucurbitaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

2.93/0.03 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Telfairia occidentalis Hook. F.

Combretaceae

Leaf/Root

MeOH

DPPH.

89/89%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Terminalia sericea Carnbess.

Combretaceae

Root

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

0.0031/0.0147 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Terminalia sericea Carnbess.

Fabaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH

14% at 2500 μg/mL

Lesotho

[251]

Trifolium burchellianum Serr.

Alliaceae

Root

EtOAc

AChE/ABTS/DPPH

0.0319 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Tulbaghia violacea Har v.

Alliacea

Rhizome

MeOH

DPPH/H2O2

35,19.3/17.9 μg/mL

South Africa

Olorunnisola et al., 2011 b

Tulbaghia violacea Har v.

Alliaceae

Rhizome

Oil

DPPH

83.0 μg/mL

South Africa

[263]

Tulbaghia violacea Har v.

Urticaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/ABTS

App 45/75%

South Africa

[48]

Urtica lobulata E. Mey.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

ABTS

0.95 mmol TEAC/g

South Africa

[47]

Vigna unguiculata L.

Cancellaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

111 ± 2.5 μg/mL

South Africa

[46]

Warburgia salutaris Chiou.

Canellaceae

Bark/Leaf/Root/Twig

MeOH

DPPH.

73/87/94/89%

Zimbabwe

[51]

Warburgia salutaris Chiou.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

2.5 mg/mL

South Africa

[257]

Xanthocercis zambesiaca

Apocynaceae

Root

EtOAc

DPPH

0.0005 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Xysmalobium undulatum R. Br.

Rutaceae

Leaf

(CH3)2CO

DPPH

4.0 μg/mL

South Africa

[237]

Zanthoxylum capense Har v.

Rutaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

 

South Africa

[46]

Zanthoxylum capense Har v.

Rutaceae

Root

MeOH

AChE/ABTS

0.01/0.075 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Zanthoxylum davyi P.G. Waterman.

Rhamnaceae

Root

MeOH

ABTS/DPPH

0.0187/0.0291 mg/mL

South Africa

[234]

Key: RSA radical scavenging activity, RC reducing power capacity, OH hydroxyl ion, NO nitric oxide radical inhibition, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide inhibition activity, LPO lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, ABTS + 2,2′-azinobis-3–ethylbenzothiozolin-6–sulfonic acid cation decolourization test, ß-CLAMS ß-carotene-linoleic acid model system, SORSA superoxide anion radical scavenging activity (SORSA), MLP microsomal lipid peroxydation, FRAP fe2+ chelating ability and ferric reducing antioxidant properties, DPPH 1,1–dipheyl-2–picry-hydrazyl, ORAC oxygen radical absorbance capacity, TEAC trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, MeOH methanol, CH 2 Cl 2 dichloromethane, EtOH ethanol, EtOAc ethyl acetate, n-C 6 H 12 hexane, (CH3)2CO acetone, H 2 O aqueous, BtOH butanol

Table 4

Antioxidants activities of Central African plants

Plants

Family

Part used

Solvents

Assay Methods

Inhibition/IC50

Country of origin

References

Abrus precatorius L

Papiliomoidae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

6.88%

Cameroon

[53]

Acalypha manniana Mull. Arg.

Euphobiaceae

Leaf

MeOH/n-C6H12

DPPH

4.51 and 4.80%

Cameroon

[264]

Acalypha racemosa B. Heyne.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf/Stem

MeOH

DPPH/NO/HO

2.11,1.92,2.12/2.28.1.49,10.04 μg/mL

Cameroon

[52]

Acanthus montanus T. Anderson

Acanthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

9.88%

Cameroon

[53]

Adenocarpus mannii Hook. f

Fabaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

361.30 μg/mL

Cameroon

[265]

Ageratum conizoides L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

9.05%

Cameroon

[53]

Ageratum conyzoides L.

Asteraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−9.31% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Alchornea cordifolia Pax & K. Hoffm.

Euphorbiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

39.70%

Cameroon

[53]

Alchornea laxiflora Pax & K. Hoffm.

Euphorbiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

95.90% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Allanblackia floribunda L.

Guttiferae

Root Bark

MeOH

DPPH

76.3 μg/mL

Cameroon

[266]

Amaranthus spinosa L.

Amaranthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

3.78%

Cameroon

[53]

Annona muricata L.

Annonaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

9.88%

Cameroon

[53]

Annona senegalensis Pers.

Anonaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

16.17% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Anthocleista schweinfurthii Gilg.

Gentianaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

1.20 μg/mL

Congo

[267]

Anthocleista schweinfurthii Gilg.

Loganiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−0.05% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Aspilia africana Pers.

Asteraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

52.91% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Asystasia gangetica A. Juss.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

3.08%

Cameroon

[53]

Azadirachta indica A. Juss.

Meliaceae

Bark/Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

59.80/2.88%

Cameroon

[53]

Barteria fistulosa Mast.

Passifloraceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

100.16 μg/mL

Cameroon

[265]

Bersama engleriana Gunke.

Melianthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

93.71% at 1000 μg/mL

Cameroon

[268]

Bidens pilosa L.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

7.57%

Cameroon

[53]

Bidens pilosa L.

Asteraceae

Bark/leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

50.92% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Bracica dera L.

Bracicaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

5.11%

Cameroon

[53]

Carica papaya L.

Caricaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

7.72%

Cameroon

[53]

Carica papaya L.

Caricaceae

Bark/leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−2.68% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Cassia alata L.

Legceasalpoidee

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

1.95%

Cameroon

[53]

Ceiba pentandra L.

Bombacea

Bark

MeOH

DPPH

28.72%

Cameroon

[53]

Centella asiatica Urb.

Apiaceae

Whole plant

MeOH

DPPH/NO

-

Cameroon

[269]

Centella asiatica Urb.

Apiaceae

Whole plant

MeOH

DPPH/NOSA

-

Cameroon

[269]

Chrysanthellum americanum Vatke.

Asteraceae

Bark/leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

17.20% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Cissus populnea Guill & Perr.

Vitaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH/NO

15.72/409 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Cissus populnea Guill & Perr.

Vitaceae

Root

MeOH

DPPH/NOSA

15.72/409.00 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Cissus quadrangularis L.

Vitaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

2.60%

Cameroon

[53]

Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle.

Rutaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

54.59% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Citrus sinensis Pers.

Rutaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

100.00% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Cleome ciliatea

Cleomaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

1.95%

Cameroon

[53]

Clerodendrum formicarum Gurke.

Lamiacea

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

>200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[140]

Coffea arabica L.

Rubiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

10.05% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Coffea robusta L. Linden

Rubiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

41.23% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Coleus coprosijblius

Lamiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

39.58%

Cameroon

[53]

Cordyline fruticosa (L.) A. Chev.

Agavaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

181.30 μg/mL

Cameroon

[270]

Costus afer L.

Costaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

68.16% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Costus afer L.

Costaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

3.04%

Cameroon

[53]

Crinum sp.

Amarillidaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

4.69%

Cameroon

[53]

Crotalaria lachnophora Hochst. ex. R.

Fabaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

97.41% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Curcuma longa L.

Zingiberaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

90.36% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Cylicodiscusgabunensis Harms.

Mimosaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH

28.00%

Cameroon

[53]

Cymbopogon citrates Stapf.

Poaceae

Leaf

BtOH

DPPH/FRAP/RP/H2O2/NO

-

Angola

[271]

Cymbopogon citrates Stapf.

Poaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

6.05%

Cameroon

[53]

Cymbopogon citrates Stapf.

Poaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−9.66% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J. Lam.

Burseraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

93.01%

Cameroon

[53]

Dacryodes edulis (G.Don) H.J. Lam.

Burseraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−8.20% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Dichrocephala integrifolia (L.F) Knntze.

Asteraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

25.43% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Dichrostachys glomerata Chi.

Mimosaceae

Seed

EtOAc/MeOH

DPPH

High

Cameroon

[272]

Dissotis perkinsiae Gilg.

Melastomaceae

Leaf

EtOH

DPPH

130.66 μg/mL

Cameroon

[265]

Dorstenia barteri Bureau.

Moraceae

Leaf/Twig

EtOAc/MeOH

DPPH

60.46/48.12 μg/mL

Cameroon

[31]

Dracaena deisteliana Engl.

Dracaenaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

6.66%

Cameroon

[53]

Draceana deisteliana Engl.

Agavaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−0.46% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Ekebergia senegalensis Fuss.

Meliaceae

Back

MeOH

DPPH

15.83 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Ekebergia senegalensis Fuss.

Meliaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH/NOSA

15.83/299 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Eleusine indica Gaertn.

Poaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

1.36%

Cameroon

[53]

Emilia coccinia Cass.

Asteraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−1.51% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Emilia cocinea Cass.

Asteraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

2.99%

Cameroon

[53]

Enantia chlorantha Oliv.

Anonaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

53.97% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Entada africana Guill & perr.

Mimosaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

82.73% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Entandophragma angolense L.

Meliaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH

7.60

Cameroon

[53]

Eremomastas speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod.

Acanthaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

46.16% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Eremomastas speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/NO

454/278 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Eremomastas speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

454 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Eremomastas speciosa (Hochst.) Cufod.

Acanthaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

5.43%

Cameroon

[53]

Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb) Lindl

Rosaceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

16.55 μg/mL

Cameroon

[270]

Erythrina Senegalensis L.

Fabaceae

Stem bark

EtOH

ß-CLAMS/FRAP/MLP

12.35/, 10.24/1.47 μg/mL

Cameroon

[273]

Erythrina Senegalensis L.

Fabaceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

46.9 μg/mL

Cameroon

[274]

Erythrina senegalensis L.

Fabaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

94.25% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Erythrina vogelii Hook. f.

Fabaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

>200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[140]

Eucalyptus oblique L Her.

Myrtaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

76.19% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Faraga macrophylla

Rutaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH

2.29%

Cameroon

[53]

Ficus asperifolia Miq.

Moraceae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

Least activity

Cameroon

[272]

Ficus exasperata Vahl.

Moraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−6.98% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Ficus sur Forssk.

Moraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

4.91%

Cameroon

[53]

Garcinia lucida Vesque.

Clusiaceae

Fruit/Bark

MeOH

DPPH, NO, HO

1.83,3.12,1.99/2.35,3.59,2.01 μg/mL

Cameroon

[52]

Gardenia aqualla J.Ellis

Rubiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/NO

105.9/253 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Gardenia aqualla J.Ellis

Rubiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH/NOSA

105.90/278.00 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Gladiolus dalenii L.

Iridaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−8.23% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Gosypium barbadense L.

Malvaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

56.98% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Harungana madagascariensis Lam.

Hypercaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

90.15%

Cameroon

[53]

Harungana madagascariensis Lam.

Hypericaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

81.75% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Hibiscus asper Hook. f.

Malvaceae

Aerial parts

n-C6H12

DPPH

Least activity

Cameroon

[272]

Hymenocardia lyrata Miq.

Phllantaceae

Root/bark

MeOH

DPPH/NO/HO

1.96,3.82,2.43/1.74,2.46,3.30 μg/mL

Cameroon

[52]

Ipomea batatas Blackie.

Convolvulaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

14.30% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Irvingia wombolu Hook. f.

Irvingiaceae

Pulp

H2O

DPPH/FRAP/ABTS. OH

37.86/15.55/55.53%31.63 at 1 mg/mL

Cameroon

[275]

Kalonchoe crenata (Andrews) Haw.

Crasulaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

73.70% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Khaya grandifoliola C. DC.

Meliaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

78.91% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Lannea kerstingii Engl. & K. Krause.

Anacardiaceae

Back

MeOH

DPPH/NO

34.40/306 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Lannea kerstingii Engl. & K. Krause.

Anacardiaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH/NOSA

34.40/253.00 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Lantana camara L.

Verbenaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

23.47%

Cameroon

[53]

Lippia adoensis L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

10.41%

Cameroon

[53]

Lygopodium macrophyllum L.

Pteridophyte

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

14.72%

Cameroon

[53]

Mangifera indica L.

Anacardiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

75.35% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Manihot esculenta Crantz.

Euphorbiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−4.80% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv.

Poaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

58.47% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Mimosa pudica L.

Mimosaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

19.37%

Cameroon

[53]

Musa sapientum L.

Musaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−9.33% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Nauclea latifolia Sm.

Rubiaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

43.02% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Occimum gratissimum L.

Labieae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

68.01% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Ocimum basilicum L.

Lamiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

39.98%

Cameroon

[53]

Olax subscorpioideae Oliv.

Olacaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

44.71% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Paullinia pinnata L.

Sapindaceae

Leaf

n-C6H12

DPPH

Least activity

Cameroon

[272]

Pentadesma butyracea Sabine.

Clusiaceae

Fruits

MeOH

DPPH

High

Cameroon

[272]

Persea americana MIill.

Lauraceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

69.91%

Cameroon

[53]

Persea americana MIill.

Lauraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

24.31% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Persea americana MIill.

Lauraceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

44.85% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Piliostigma thonningii MIill.

Cesalpilaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

74.26% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Polyscias fulva Harns (Hieram).

Araliaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

−0.01% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Protea elliotii C.H. Wright.

Proteaceae

Back

MeOH

DPPH/NO

14.20/205 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Protea elliotii C.H. Wright.

Proteaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH/NOSA

14.20/306.00 μg/mL

Cameroon

[269]

Prunus Africana (Hook. f.)

Rosaceae

Bark

MeOH

DPPH

22.10%

Cameroon

[53]

Psidium guajava L.

Myrsinacee

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

39.84%

Cameroon

[53]

Psidium guayava L.

Myrtaceae

Bark/Leaf/Rhizome

MeOH;CH2Cl2

Fe (II)-Ascorbate induced LP

50.47% at 200 μg/mL

Cameroon

[117]

Psorospermum febrifugum Spach.

Guttiferae

Stem bark

MeOH

DPPH

Least activity

Cameroon

[272]

Pycnocycla ledernanii Wolff.

Apiaceae

Leaf

MeOH

DPPH

8.57%

Cameroon

[53]

Rumex abyssinicus Jacq.

Polygonaceae

Bulb

MeOH